Friday, 23 June 2017

The construction of children's literature during the Yugoslav first five-year plan.


The radical elimination of bourgeois children's literature in

1945, coupled with the need to start educating children in a new

Communist spirit, created in Yugoslavia a huge gap that could not be

filled with the works of local authors. These are the reasons for a

strong reliance on the massive translation of Soviet children's

literature. Soviet children's literature compensated for the lack

of tradition in certain literary genres and provided to Croatian (at

that time, Yugoslav) children's literature narrative models. At the

same time, it provided guidelines and correctives to social practices.

While highly socially engaged works of children's literature by

local authors were published before World War II, following the war they

were revised and adjusted to new circumstances. In a similar manner, the

translations of Soviet authors published before World War II were

retranslated and ideologically adapted. After World War II, the books by

Soviet authors made up more than half of all published books. The

Russian origin of a book confirmed its ideological correctness, so that

even Russian manuals for growing fruits and vegetables, related to a

different climate, were translated. However, after the 1948 the break-up

of Yugoslavia with the Soviet Union, children's literature was

affected by a wave of revisionism. Although books were still translated

from Russian (as Yugoslav production still did not reach the satisfying

levels), only those that could fit in the new Yugoslav situation were

selected for translation. The works translated earlier were thoroughly

revised in order to be compatible with the new circumstances. Therefore,

not only did the Communist ideology radically change the picture of

children's literature but also continually revised its own

production in line with the changing circumstances. Under the Communist

regime the task of adjusting timeless works of art to the special needs

of a particular political moment was never completed, and thus these

literary works could never acquire their final form.

Keywords: Soviet children's literature, Yugoslav

children's literature, ideology in children's literature,

ideological adaptations of translated literature, Croatian

children's literature after Second World War

In 1947, Viktor Cvitan and Dragutin Frankovic published a booklet

titled What Should My Child Read? (Sto da cita moje dijete?) containing

a list of books recommended as good reading for children and youth. The

list of 196 books contained a hundred books by Soviet authors and eight

by Russian authors. Seven years later, in 1954, Ljudevit Krajacic

published a booklet titled Let us Offer Children a Good Book (Da jmo

djeci dobru knjigu) that had a similar purpose. Krajacic recommended 166

titles, among them eleven works by Russian authors, and not a single one

by Soviet authors. The aim of this paper is to shed light on what

occurred in the seven-year span between 1947 and 1954 with Soviet

translated literature in former Yugoslavia. In other words, our aim is

to examine the way Soviet translated literature made from absolute

domination to its complete disappearance from Yugoslav school required

reading lists.

In former Yugoslavia, the end of World War II and the victory of

the National Liberation Army did not entail only the victory over

Fascism and Nazism but also the victory of the social revolution. New

circumstances and the building of a socialist society created an urgent

need to educate new generations in the communist spirit. Something

unprecedented was occurring: a new soci ety was being built, a society

that completely denied tradition, instead of using it as its basis. The

past was denounced as a deceptive manipulator in the service of the

governing class and could not be used as a groundwork on which a new

reality would be built.

In our country, to educate means to revolutionize, that is to

emancipate the manner of the child's thinking from the technical

customs of thinking determined in the past, to emancipate it from

delusions. At the basis of these delusions lies a centuries-old

experience of a conservative life, based on a class struggle and an

ambition of individuals to protect themselves and to fix individualism

and nationalism as "eternal forms" and laws of social life.

The education of children should be organized in such a manner that

from their early childhood children are resolutely, even when playing,

forced t o suppress conscious and unconscious desires for the past.

To be more precise, the entire aristocratic and burgeois past and all

its fundamental values should be rejected. What is valid for the whole

of society should be valid for children's literature, as well (Gorky,

1945: 11-12).

The attitudes expressed by Gorky were embraced in Croatian/Yugoslav

practice. In children's and youth literature, entire genres

vanished: classical fairy tales, trivial adventure novels, books with

religious content. After a fierce attack in the Yugoslav daily Borba

(Combat), the cartoon was considered Western consumer goods.

In February 1948, the manager of the Municipal Library in Zagreb

submitted a report on the reorganization of the library's

collection of books. The library conducted the reorganization of its

collection in order "to become a genuine library for the

people". The purging of the library's collection, which

contained 70,000 book copies, was carried out in March 1947.

All harmful and worthless books had to be removed from the library...

[...] About 16,000 copies of various no-good, reactionary,

ideologically uncommitted, atrocius, pseudo-scientific literature,

were eliminated from the library's collection. (Kancijan, 1948: 47)

However, in addition to the disappearance of entire literary

genres, a large number of authors also vanished, either because they

were banished from public life or were even physically eliminated. A

list of authors for children who were allowed to publish contained about

ten authors. Therefore, owing to the urgent need to provide adequate

reading for children, who had to be raised in the new, communist spirit,

there appeared an enormous gap that had to be filled with appropriate

content. The only viable solution was t o rely on those who had already

had more experience with similar problems: Soviet children's

literature. In almost no time, the libraries and bookshops were flooded

with books for children by Soviet authors. This made it possible to

satisfy a need for large production of books that were published in

printing runs of 15 to 20 thousand copies and printed in several

editions. In addition, this made it possible to satisfy a need for

literary models that could be followed by Croatian authors and used as

models in practical life.

In the years following World War II, the unquestionable authority

of the Soviet Union was essentially indispensable. The victory of the

communist Soviet Union over Nazi Germany provided legitimacy to the

Yugoslav communist regime in the eyes of the majority of the population,

who were either apolitical or highly frightened and antagonistically

disposed towards the communist government. Such a mood was, inter alia,

a result of decades-long propaganda that represented communists as the

greatest social evil. In the eyes of the skeptical or indifferent local

population, the powerful Soviet infrastructure, able to produce

thousands of tanks and aircraft and crush the German military machine,

provided legitimacy to the Yugoslav Communist Party that had no

experience in managing a peacetime economy. Therefore, in the post-war

period, the Sovietization of Yugoslav society, which aimed to become a

communist society, was indispensable and had to be conducted on all

levels: not only on the strategic level of society management but also

on the level of everyday life .

A good illustration of this might be found in the schedule of

holidays to be celebrated in schools, which was published in

People's Education (Narodna prosvjeta) on January 18 , 1946. Of 15

days that were marked as holidays, six referred to Soviet holidays, two

to international holidays, four to Croatian anniversaries and three to

Yugoslav anniversaries.

Libraries were also deeply involved in carrying out their

educational tasks. In addition to the "passive" imposition of

the Soviet content through the selection of books available in libraries

and their prominent status in various exhibitions organized by

libraries, Soviet books were "actively" pushed into the hands

of readers:

The activity of librarians--agitators is evident in the following

episode: a 15-year old boy, asked for The Idiot by Dostoevsky, as he

had no idea what to choose for reading and the title intrigued him. At

last, he was glad to leave the library with How the Steel was Tempered

under his arm (Kancijan, 1948: 48)

At the time when Yugoslav literary heroes had not yet entered the

scene, i.e. prior to 1953 (1), giving prominence to Soviet heroes and

their superiority over other literary heroes was sorely needed in

children's literature. For example, Son of the Regiment (Sin puka),

a novel by Valentin Kataev, first published in the Soviet Union in 1945,

was published in Yugoslavia in 1946. Its hero, Vanya Solntsev, an orphan

adopted by the military unit at the frontline, was a perfect literary

realization of the child-hero, a concept which, though very present in

Yugoslav society in the Best Home Improvement College Station years following World War II, was not depicted

in literature. A large number of children joined Partisan units during

the war. After the war they were perceived in the same manner as during

the war: as being equal to adults.

War victors and those who took up the task o f building a new

society imposed the picture of the child they created during the war:

this is a picture of the child-hero who performed war tasks even in the

fiercest battles. In the new circumstances, during the period of the

post-war reconstruction, this child stood shoulder to shoulder with

adults during the reconstruction of the country.

Pioneer units were formed with the aim of taking part in the

reconstruction that was under way all over the country. The image of the

heroic child, a relevant participant in society, is particularly

noticeable in the pioneer press. The first pages of children's

magazines were most often reserved for resolutions and reports from the

congresses of the Alliance of the Communist Youth of Yugoslavia (Savez

komunisticke omladine Jugoslavije) or the Communist Party of Yugoslavia

or for addresses by the Party leaders. The lexis, syntax and

ar gumentation used in these articles were not in the least different

from those used in articles addressed to adult readers.

However, a considerably larger number of children had not taken

part in war operations but had lived their lives in urban or rural

environments. It was urgently necessary to introduce these children to

their new social role and to provide them with heroes they had to look

up to. Large masses of children, who could not be easily influenced by

political speeches and meetings, or various forms of pressure or

promises of a better social status or employment, had to be mobilized.

To a certain extent, this was achieved through school curricula.

In the circumstances of war poverty, the easiest and most efficient

way of mobilizing children was to offer them mental dolls of love and

hate. These mental dolls offered protection in inhuman conditions in

which such childre n lived. Often, the only crutches the child could rely

on in the struggle for survival were, on the one hand the personalities

of loved commanders or of Comrade Tito and on the other, the

personalities of demonized inhuman enemies. However, in the post-war

period, such mental dolls proved to be a highly efficient means of

mobilizing the children who were not involved in war operations. They

were also taught how to love Comrade Tito on the one hand and how to

"relentlessly hate" other protagonists they became familar

with at school, in particular in the classes of native tongue and

history. To whom was this "relentless hate" targeted? From

1945 to 1947, "towards enemies of the homeland, towards all those

who try to destroy our national-liberation struggle"; in 1948,

"towards the enemies and oppressors of the working people"; in

1950, "towards all that is reactionary and inhuman"; i n 1951,

"towards the enemies of our homeland and destroyers of peace";

in 1956, "towards imperialists and other enemies of our socialist


However, in order to be able to efficiently love and relentlessly

hate, one has to take a certain standpoint, to take over a certain role,

identify with a particular character, from whose position one can love

and hate. In an article by Croatian children's writer Danko Oblak

How Vojkan Defeated Winnetou (Kako je Vojkan pobijedio Vinetua),

published in 1947 in Pionir (The Pioneer), a boy called Vojkan stands in

a bookshop. Suddenly, he imagines that popular literary characters from

the children's books lying on the bookshelves have become real

people involved in a fight.

"But you cannot give real adventures, exciting and true adventures",

says angrily "Son of the Regiment" and steps, along with "Druzina Pere

Kvr zice", in front of Old Shatterhand. "Look at him? Nothing but an

idle vagrant. What a gun he has, an ancient cannon! And look at my

brand new machine gun, it can fire 70 bullets at a time. I'll kill you

all like flies! The Apache stirred. Their eyes flashed with a

belligerent glow... (Oblak 1947: 12.)

In this fictional direct confrontation the characters from trivial

literature (such as Winnetou) are completely inferior to the machine

guns of the heroes of Soviet children's literature. While

Croatian/Yugoslav literature could not offer protagonists who could

inflame children's imagination and make children identify with

them, such heroes could be found in Soviet literature. Soon Timur and

His Squad (Timur i njegova ceta) by Gaidar, Boy with Narva Frontier

(Djecak iz Narve) and Pantelijev were published (2). Soviet novels

provided protagonists who could be used as literary depictio ns of the

child-hero or its derivations, such as pioneers, boys from semi-military

collectives or collectives similar to the military. The main idea in

Gaidarov's novel Timur and His Squad (3) is that Timur and the boys

he organized into a closely knit gang are doing good deeds and

protecting families whose fathers and husbands are in the Red Army.

Pionir (1947)6:1 published a picture of young people working on the rail

tracks, accompanied with the following text: "Let us organize full

and continuous help to the families of the youth who take part in youth

worker brigades and go to work on the youth rail track Samac - Sarajevo.

Let us help their families to cultivate their fields and farms."

However, at the beginning of 1948, the relations between former

Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union suddenly changed for the worse.

According to Bilandzic's interpretation (see Bilandzic 1985: 151

and further), the conflict was caused by Stalin's ambitions to

achieve complete control over Socialist countries and consolidate his

position in the aggravated Cold War circumstances. Stalin managed to

control the countries in which the Red Army defeated Nazism. However,

Yugoslavia, where by the end of World War II the resistance movement

grew into the Yugoslav People's Army, a respectable military power,

expected equality and partnership relations among communist countries.

The conflict escalated with the Resolution of the Communist Information

Bureau (Cominform) adopted on June 28 1948. The Resolution stated that

due to complete misconduct of the Central Committee of the Yugoslav

Communist Party, the Yugoslav Communist Party was expelled from the

union of brotherly Communist Parties. The Yugoslav Communist Party was

called to dismiss its Central Committee and elect a new
internationalistically oriented leadership.

On its Fifth Congress held in Belgrade from July 21 to July 28

1948, the Yugoslav Communist Party rejected the qualifications of the

Cominform. Suddenly, the warm brotherly relations of Yugoslavia and the

Soviet Union became so tense that they were on the verge of an armed

conflict. The Communist Party of Yugoslavia was in a great trouble. That

the situation was serious is evident from the fact that all segments of

society were mobilized, even the Pioneers' Union. The magazine for

children, Pionir, on the cover page of its issue published on August 15

1948 had a picture of children bathing and jumping to the sea. The

second page had a full page portrait of Comrade Tito, "the

Secretary General of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of

Yugoslavia". Below the headline "Long Live the Central

Committee of the Communist Party of Yug oslavia led by Comrade Tito"

there followed a list of all members of the Central Committee, a list of

all candidates for the Central Committee of the Communist Party of

Yugoslavia and a list of the members of the Central Revision Commission.

On the fourth page (4) a speech delivered by Comrade Tito after the

election of the members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party

of Yugoslavia was printed:

Long Live the Communist Party of Yugoslavia! (A long and loud applause

and chanting Tito-Party).

Long Live the Soviet Union led by the great Stalin (A long applause

and several rounds of chanting Stalin-Tito. All the delegates rise and

sing The Internationale) (Pionir (1948)14: 4).

This period was marked with the concept of the child-hero. In other

words, the child was perceived as a little adult and the children's

magazine addressed children as if they were adults. However, at no point

were the motives and purposes of the Communist Party Congress hinted at.

No clue was given that the reason for the Congress is the attack of the

Soviet Union and the countries of the people's democracy against

the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. On the contrary, readers of Pionir

must have been convinced that the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia lived in

perfect harmony.

In the field of children's literature, "a long applause

and chanting Stalin-Tito" resonated for some time, at least for a

year. Only in the middle of 1949, the authorities mustered the courage

to speak about what really occurred in the relations with the Soviet

Union. An article published in June 1949 in Pionir (5) may be a good

illustration of how great the shock and collective trauma were:

You knew that we were under attack by imperialists because they lost

control, b ecause the society that we build, eradicates any form of

abuse and fights for peace and socialism. But at school you learnt

different things about the socialist state, the Soviet Union, about

the countries of people's democracy and it must have come as a

surprise that the attacks against our country and the Party came from

these countries. It has been a year since the historical Congress of

our Party [the Fifth Congress of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia,

held from 21 to 28 July 1948], which gave a decisive and clear answer

to all slenderers, which proved that Yugoslavia was able to build

socialism relying on its own powers. [...]

Among other things, some leaders in these countries are saying that

our Party raises the children to hate the Soviet Union and other

peoples, that it teaches them to love only their own people. The love

of our pioneers towards the Soviet Union , its Army, and Soviet

pioneers need not be explained in many words (6).

At the third meeting of the Cominform held in November 1949 a new

resolution titled "Yugoslav Communist Party run by murders and

spies" was passed. One of the conclusions reads:

The spy group led by Tito, Rankovic, Kardelj, Dilas, Pijade, Gosnjak,

[...] represents the enemy of the working class and peasants, the

enemy of the people of Yugoslavia (Bilandzic, 1985: 160).

At this time, the Yugoslav Communist Party had already conducted

the most brutal purges of all its members who gave any sign that they

might have any understanding for the attitudes expressed by the

Cominform. The notorious detention camp on the island of Goli was opened

and according to some statistics about 40,000 people were detained
there. One of the theses of this study is that, despite the radical and

brutal destalinization of Yugoslav society, prompted by the

confrontation between the communist parties in the Cominform and the

Communist Party of Yugoslavia, this process ran considerably slower and

more discreetly in children's literature. Thus, after the split

with the Cominform, titles by Soviet authors continued to be published

until 1951, when the publishing of the books by contemporary Soviet

authors was abruptly stopped and publishers shifted their focus on

publishing of world and Croatian/Yugoslav classic works. The leadership

of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia managed to resist the pressures and

remained in power. Having rejected the thesis that there is only one,

Soviet road, towards a classless society, Yugoslavia announced it would

take its own road to socialism, according to which the state-owne d

property became social ownership and workers' self-management was

introduced. In art, the doctrine of social realism was rejected, in

particular after the legendary speech of Miroslav Krleza at the Congress

of Yugoslav Writers in Ljubljana in 1954. The process of destalinization

of the Party and Yugoslav society was unrelentless and rigorous.

However, on the surface, in particular in the children's world

these processes were considerably slower and mitigated. Thus, at the

same time when Yugoslav writers responded to Soviet writers (January 15

1949) and their criticism that the leadership of the Yugoslav Communist

Party betrayed the interests of the working class and international

proletariat, Pionir in its issue of January 1 1949 published an article

(7) with a picture of Stalin surrounded with children. The text below

the picture reads: "In the Soviet Union, man is highly appre ciated

and that is why enormous attention is paid to the education and life of

man. Pioneers have the opportunity to enjoy various entertaining

activities, since the Bolshevist Party and Stalin take care of it. Every

citizen of the USSR takes loving care of the life of pioneers, as they

are seen as future adults that will be able to build Communism."

(Pionir (1949)1) (8).

It is evident that the developments in the relations between

Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union ran at two speeds: at the faster speed

in the adult world and at the slower speed on the level of

children's consciousness.

The first book by Sergei Mihalkov to be published in Croatian

translation was The Red Neckerchief (Crvena marama), a drama piece

published on June 30 1949. Elena Prokhorova defines the literary efforts

of Sergei Mihalkov in the following way: "If the subject of

Mihalkov's works is sta te iconography, the target is the child who

is learning the fundamental lexicon of the empire and its everyday

practices." (2008:288) Therefore, at the time of the fiercest

attacks of Stalin against the Yugoslav Communist Party leadership, Novo

pokoljenje (New Generation), the largest Croatian publisher of

children's literature, published a book by a children's author

who was Stalin's ideological follower. Taking into account general

circumstances at the time, it is hardly possible to interpret this as

ignorance or an oversight of the publisher. In particular, if we know

that in the following year, 1950, another book by Mihalkov, A Special

Task (Posebni zadatak), whose aim also was to glorify Stalin, was

published by the same publisher. These decisions must have been brought

with the blessing of the Party leadership, with the aim of sending the

message that there were no deviation s from the Communist road and that,

through the messages inculcated in children, the Yugoslav and Soviet

future were fundamentally linked.

The Red Neckerchief is a drama piece devoted to the 25th

anniversary of the Organization of Young Pioneers ([TEXT NOT

REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) that was established on May 19 1922. Therefore,

it abounds in ideological axioms. For example, in Dunja's

Neckerchief (Dunjina marama), a story by Danko Oblak, Dunja is a

pre-school child. She has an 11-year old brother, Bojan, who no longer

wants to wear a blue neckerchief, a symbol of belonging to pioneers

since some older boys mocked him that he was a kid. Dunja is distressed

because of this and at the end of the story she manages to convince her

brother that it is important to wear a blue pioneer neckerchief.

However, in Mihalkov's drama piece, the reader learns that the

pioneer neckerchief is "part of our red communist flag"

(Mihalkov1949:83), and that to be a pioneer means that one wants to

become a communist. So it is completely unclear how Bojan's blue

pioneer neckerchief fits into this.

Mihalkov's drama piece is actually an answer to the question

what constitutes "a happy childhood". A happy childhood is not

about "eating bottled fruit, going to the cinema every other day

and going to the seaside every summer" "(56). Happiness is

when you become what you want to become. "(57)! Some time ago, in

capitalism children had to work hard and had no opportunity to become

what they wanted to become. In America, if you are born as a black, you

are not a human at all. In the Soviet Union, however, irrespective of

the material status of your family, or even if you have no family, the

state will help you to make your dreams come true. It is enough that you

have a wish. That is why at the admission ceremony for new pioneers the

cheers "Young pioneers, be ready for the Lenin-Stalin cause!

Hurray! " are heard. (131)

Let us now sketch the third period, in which children's

literature by Soviet authors lost its unquestionable authority. In 1952,

Croatian editor and poet, Grigor Vitez, referring to the past years

noted: "In the years following our Liberation we had an unusually

large number of translated foreign books for children, almost

exclusively by Russian authors: publishers were of the opinion that

choosing these works they could not fail in terms of the purity of ideas

expressed. Thus, in addition to truly valuable works, quite a number of

works which were of average, or even poor, value were translated and

published." It should be noted that Vitez refers to "the

purity of ideas expressed" which made it possible to translate and

publis h even low quality works, without any questions raised.

In the period of the Sovietization of Croatian/Yugoslav

children's literature every word of Soviet authors was piously

absorbed. Works by Soviet authors depicted the reality that was desired

by the Yugoslav Communist regime. On the other hand, the works of

Croatian/Yugoslav socially engaged authors who wrote before World War II

were republished in the post-war period and had to be adapted to the

demands of the new reality. Let us quote several randomly selected

examples: Poletarci, a novel by Josip Pavicic, published in 1937, had to

be completely adapted before it was republished in 1949. In a similar

way, Deca Velikog Sela, a novel by Mate Lovrak, was first published in

Belgrade in 1933 and underwent considerable changes in its first

post-war edition in 1946.

Books by Western authors were censored and adapted to the needs of

Yugoslav Communist society. Thus, Bambi, Heroes of Paul Street,

Winettou, and Heidi were heavily adapted, with no guilt feelings on the

part of publishers. In the period after 1951, books by Soviet authors

shared a similar destiny, this time because of different ideological

motives. The attitude towards Soviet authors was deprived of the respect

characteristic for the period of Sovietization.

The whole process from the glorification of Stalin to radical

destalinization may be revealed if we examine the translation of Son of

the Regiment, a novel by Kataev, and a drama piece under the same title.

In 1947, Belgrade-based Prosveta published a translation from

Russian of Son of the Regiment: a drama piece in three acts. At the very

end Enakiev dies on the stage and addresses his last words to Vanya.

Enakiev: Thank you!... Vania, come here, lean to me, listen what I am
going to tell you. You were a good son of the scouts. You were a good

son of the artillerymen. You were my dear, good son. But, in the first

place, always and everywhere, you must be a true son of your

mother--your Fatherland! You must be a true son of the best son of our

Motherland--the great STALIN!... [...]

Enakiev: Vanjusha! Go! Go! .Bravely, the bugle calls! Bidenko, give

him a hand, help him! Go, Vania! Step bravely forward! ..


Vania and Bidenko climb the ,,stairs of the Suvorov Military Academy."

Banners, trumpets, music.

The end.

In this drama piece, as in the novel published a year before,

Stalin's leading role in war is repeatedly emphasized. Thus, in the

Croatian translation of the novel from 1946 the artillerymen yell:

Fire on damned German soil--fire!

Hold on! Fire!

For the Motherland! For Stalin! Fire!

Death to Hi tler! Fire! !" (Kataev, 1946: 104) (9).

Both in the Serbian edition from 1973 and the Bosnian one from

1971, the words ,,For Stalin!" are omitted.

At the end of the novel Son of the Regiment, the commander of the

regiment presents Vanya with the captain's shoulder straps from the

uniform of his beloved dead captain Enakiev, telling him " But,

listen: always and everywhere in the first place you must be a true son

of your mother--your Motherland! You must be a true son of the best son

of our Motherland--the great STALIN!" (128).

In all the editions of Son of the Regiment published after 1948 the

words of the best son of our Motherland--the great STALIN!" were


In later editions, the entire end of the novel full of pathos is

completely changed. At the end of the novel, Vanya climbs the staircase

decorated with red flags to meet an old war general.

It was hard for him to run. But the old man gives him a hand. The old

man is clad in a grey military coat, laid over the shoulder, in boots

with spurs and a diamond star on his chest, a grey lock over his

beautiful, frowned forehead. He takes Vanya by the hand and leads him

up the staircase to the top, where among the potrgani war banners from

four victorious wars, stand Stalin with a brilliant marshall star,

glittering and glowing under his army coat.

Under the flat brim od the cap protruding, blinking eyes look at Vanya

with a demanding expression. But under the dark moustache Vanya

notices the firm and fatherly smile and it seems that Stalin is

telling him:"Come on, shepherd boy. Step lively!" (Kataev, 1946: 132).

In the later editions, the entire end of the novel (from the words

"It was hard for him to run...") is omitted. To conclude, we

have portrayed three periods in the reception of Soviet children's

literature in Croatia/Yugoslavia: a) the period of strong Sovietization

of Yugoslav children's literature that lasted from 1945 to 1948.

This period was marked with a strong presence of Soviet authors, whose

works provided models both for the future literary production and for

everyday practices (demobilization of children who participated in the

war, the organization of the Pioneers' Union, the relations between

pioneers and the youth; b) the period of cooling in the relations with

the Soviet Union that lasted from 1949 to 1950. In this period, the

number of the books Home Improvement College Station by Soviet authors decreased but still the minimum of

relations with the Soviet Union were maintained; c) the period after

1951, when the works by Soviet authors were published again, but they

lost the status of authority which provides model s for literature and

everyday life. Rather, the choice of the books, as well as the

interventions into the texts, show that the main concern was to adapt

them to the demands of the reality, as shaped by the Communist regime in


In histories of Croatian children's literature, overviews of

the decades following World War II are scantily written. As a rule,

overviews of this period boil down to the pejorative qualifications of

the propaganda literature, lacking any wish for a closer analysis.

Usually, the later period of children's literature spanning from

1956 is analyzed, without the critical examination of the prior period,

an exceptionally turbulent and unprecedentedly experimental period. As

if the later period was not built on the groundwork of the prior,

suppressed time. How can we, then, really understand the later period

built up on the previous one and al l the later periods if we do not try

to critically examine the beginning?


*** (1946). Plan i program za strucno usavrsavanje nastavnika

osnovnih i opsteobrazovnih srednjih skola za godinu 1946/47. (The Plan

and Program for Professional Development of Teachers in Primary and

General Education Secondary Schools for the Year 1946/47).

*** (1948). Film "Crvena marama" (The Film "The Red

Neckerchief). Pionir (20), 10.

*** (1948). Govor druga Tita na zavrsetku kongresa (The Closing

Speech of Comrade Tito at the Congress). Pionir, (14), 4.

*** (1949). Odgovor jugoslovenskih knjizevnika sovjetskim

knjizevnicima F. Gladkovu, N. Tihonovu i drugima (Reply of Yugoslav

Writers to Soviet Writers F. Gladkov, N. Tikhonov and others). Brazda,

(1), 1-9.

Balina, M. (2008). Creativity through Restraint: The Beginnings of

Soviet Children's Literature. In Balina M. a nd L. Rudeva (editors),

Russian children's literature and culture, New York London:

Routledge, pp. 3-17.

Bilandzic, D., (1985). Historija Socijalisticke Federativne

Republike Jugoslavije: glavni procesi 1918-1985 (History of the

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: the Major Processses

1918-1985), Zagreb: Skolska knjiga.

Cvitan, V. and D. Frankovic (1947). Popis izdanja za djecu i

omladinu[omotni naslov: Sto da cita moje dijete?] (A List of Books for

Children and Youth [cover title: What Should My Child Read?], Zagreb:

Nakladni zavod Hrvatske

D. A. (1951). Sto cemo citati u 1951. Omladinski borac (Youth

Organization Combatant), (1), 3.

Dean, A. (1949). Crvena marama (The Red Neckerchief), Pionir, (17),


Gajdar, A. (1963). Timur i njegova ceta; Komandant Snjezne tvrdave

(Timur and His Squad; Commander of Snow Fortress), Zagreb: Mladost.

Galway, E. A. (2014). "You are the hope of the world!":

the figure of the child in First World War children's literature.

In Keyes M. T. and A. McGillicuddy (eds.), Politics and Ideology in

Children's Literature, Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 104-114.

Gorki, M, A. Beljajev, Tauber, V. (1945). Dajte djeci literaturu

(Give Literature to Children), Belgrade: Novo pokolenje.

Kancijan, A. (1948). O radu i nekim iskustvima Gradske knjiznice u

Zagrebu (On Work and Experiences of the Municipal Library in Zagreb),

Narodna prosvjeta, (1-2), 47-51.

Katajev, V. (1946a). Sin puka (Son of the Regiment), Belgrade: Novo


Katajev, V. (1946b). Sin puka: pripovijest, (Son of the Regiment),

Zagreb: Vjesnik.

Katajev, V. (1947). Sin puka: pozorisni komad u tri cina (Son of

the Regiment), Belgrade: Prosveta izdavacko preduzece Srbije.

Katajev, V. (1971). Sin puka (Son of the Regiment), Sarajevo:

Veselin Maslesa.

Katajev, V. (1973). Sin puka (Son of the Regiment), Beograd: Nolit.

Krajacic, Lj. (1954). Dajmo djeci dobru knjigu (Let us Offer

Children a Good Book), Zagreb: Nasa djeca.

Majhut, B. (2016). Hrvatska djecja knjizevnost i jugoslavenska

djecja knjizevnost (Croatian Children's Literature and Yugoslav

Children's Literature), Detinjstvo (2), 28-43.

Majhut, B. and Lovric Kralj, S. (2016a). Slika djeteta u djecjoj

knjizevnosti pedesetih godina 20. st. u socijalistickoj Jugoslaviji:

dijete - stanovnik djecje republike (A Picture of a Child in the

1950's Children's Literature in Yugoslavia: A child of the

Children's Republic). Detinjstvo (3), 19-30.

Majhut, B. and Lovric Kralj, S. (2016b). Slika djeteta u djecjoj

knjizevnosti pedesetih godina 20. st. u socijalistickoj Jugoslaviji:

dijete-heroj (A Picture of a Child in the 1950's Literature in

Yugoslavia: A Heroic Child), Novi sad. Detinjstvo (2), 43-54.

Mihalkov, S. (1949). Crvena marama (The Red Neckerchief, Zagreb:

Novo pokoljenje.

Mihalkov, S. (1950). Posebni zadatak (A Special Task), Zagreb: Novo


Oblak, D. (1947). Kako je Vojkan pobijedio Vinetu (How Vojkan

Defeated Winnetou). Pionir, (19), 11-13.

Oblak, D. (1949). Dunjina marama (Dunja 's Neckerchief),

Pioni r, (11-12), 4.

Prokhorova, E. (2008). A Traditionalist in the Land of Innovators:

The Paradoxes of Sergei Mikhalkov. In Balina M. and L. Rudeva (eds.),

Russian children's literature and culture, New York London:

Routledge, pp. 285-306.

Saric, T. (2010). Djelovanje Agitpropa prema knjizevnom radu i

izdavastvu u NRH (Agitrop Activities Related to Literary Work and

Publishing in the People's Republic of Croatia), 1945-1952. Radovi

- Zavod za hrvatsku povijest, (42), 387-424.

Vitez, G. (1952). Neki problemi nase savremene knjizevnosti za

djecu (Some Problems of our Contemporary Literature for Children),

Pedagoski rad, (7), 257-267.

Article Info

Received: April 04 2017

Accepted: April 18 2017

Berislav Majhut (*)

(*) Full Professor, PhD, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Teacher

Education, Email:

(1) The first Croatian war n ovel for children, Pirgo by Andelka

Martic, was published as late as 1953. It was followed by Modri prozori

(Blue Windows) by Danko Oblak, published in 1958, and Courier from Psunj

(Kurir s Psunja) by Gabro Vidovic, published in 1959.

(2) A large number of other works by Soviet authors appeared. For

example, My Dear Boys (Moji dragi djecaci) by Lav Kasilj, Hearts of the

Brave (Srca smjelih) by Kotov and Ljaskoski, Adventures of a Little Boy

(Dozivljaji "malog") by Likstanov, etc.

(3) The novel was published in Belgrade in 1946 by Nopok publishing

house, and readers of Pionir could learn about this new book in issue

39, p. 10.

(4) On page five a speech by pioneer Brane Markovic, leader of the

platoon "Danilo Jaukovic" held at the Fifth Congress of the

Party was printed.

(5) Even after 1949 in children's literature the connection

both with the Soviet Union and Stalin was retained.

(6) Pionir (13-14), pp. 3 Pero Ivacic: At the Anniversary of the

Fifth Congress of the Yugoslav Communist Party.

(7) This was the last article in Pionir devoted to Stalin.

(8) In the same issue of Pionir the Resolution of December 16 1948

on the merging of the Association of Communist Youth of Yugoslavia and

the People's Youth of Yugoslavia into one organization was

published. Actually, this meant that all youth in Yugoslavia were

communist. The system, feeling endangered, tried to take over absolute


(9) Both in the Croatian and Serbian editions from 1946 all

references to Stalin were retained.'sliteratureduringtheYugoslavfirst...-a0494585402

Thursday, 22 June 2017

Flower - Art frozen in glass: Exquisite paperweights - Pictures

In the mid-19th century, paperweights made in France - which became popular around the world - were small treasures which combined all kinds of age-old glassmaking techniques, some dating back to ancient Roman times.

Christopher Monkhouse, chief curator for European decorative arts at the Art Institute of Chicago - home to one of the world's great collections of paperweights - says the public always fills his gallery. "They look at these little miniature marvels of technique, and they're just tours de force."

Left: A paperweight, c. 1848-55, from the Clichy Glasshouse of Paris.

Credit: Arthur Rubloff Collection of Paperweights at the Art Institute of Chicago

Monday, 19 June 2017

'Water cops' seek sprinkler scofflaws in drought-parched California| Reuters

By Sharon Bernstein


SACRAMENTO Calif. It was still dark on Kokomo Drive in Sacramento's Natomas district as Paul Brown edged his city-issued Honda Civic past a row of beige stucco houses with tiny front lawns, looking for water wasters.

He heard the scofflaws before he saw their lush green lawns amid the otherwise parched turf. The buzz of a sprinkler system gave them away on a day that the city, desperate to save water amid California's ongoing drought, had forbidden watering.

"If I can get a good picture - if there's a lot of water - I'll cite them," he said.

California is in the third year of a devastating drought that has led farmers to fallow nearly half a million acres of cropland, threatened fish hatcheries and shrunk drinking water supplies for some communities.

To get people to conserve, many municipalities and regional water agencies have hired "water cops" like Brown to enforce state conservation rules.

Cities have even asked people to turn their neighbors in, and some have created smartphone apps to make the process easier.

Brown, 46, a father of four who was hired by the city as a meter reader, said he picked this area because he has fielded numerous complaints from neighbors about water wasters.

Camera and citation book in hand, he parked the car a few houses down and got out, walking swiftly to the house where the sprinklers were on. A flash illuminated the building's facade, then all was dark again.

Brown headed back to the car and wrote up the citation. A check of his laptop showed that the residents had not been cited before, so instead of a fine of up to $500, they would get a warning. On a second offen se, they would have to attend a meeting on how to save water. Third time, a fine.

The city of Sacramento has about a half-dozen employees enforcing conservation rules. Like Brown, they go out on Friday mornings before dawn, patrolling neighborhoods. When they're not patrolling, they field phone calls from residents turning in their neighbors, hopping in their cars to check out serious reports on the spot.

Water use in the city dropped 25 percent in August over the same month in 2013, the most recent month for which information is available, state d ata showed.

Statewide, residents and businesses cut water use by 11.5 percent in August over the comparable 2013 period, enough to fill nearly 40,000 Olympic-size swimming pools.

Felicia Marcus, chairwoman of the State Water Resources Control Board, credits new rules and tougher enforcement with much of the change.

"Regulations make better results than voluntary exhortations," she said. "People want to know that everybody else is doing it."

In August, the water resources board implemented statewide rules that prohibit watering gardens enough to cause visible runoff, hosing down driveways or asphalt, and operating non-recirculating fountains.

Regulators also allowed municipalities to set mandatory cutbacks and levy fines against those who do not comply.

In Los Angeles, the city has received 4,400 reports of water wasters this year, resulting in 2,200 warning citations, said Michelle Vargas, a spokeswoman with the Los Angeles Department of Wat er and Power.

L.A. has kept one water cop on the beat full-time since the state's last big drought in 2009, but it added three more this summer after the new statewide regulations went into effect.

The Southern California city of Long Beach is offering residents a water-waster app for their smartphones, making snitching quick and easy by allowing users to report neighbors and businesses for hosing down sidewalks, watering during the heat of the day or having a break or leak in their water lines.

Sometimes, Brown says, reports from vindictive neighbors lead him to visit a property only to find that no violation has taken place.

"I tell them I'm not going to cite you just because they call on you," said Brown, who carefully documents every case with photographs a nd a brief report. "There has to be evidence."

(Editing by Douglas Royalty)

How to Start a Back Porch Vegetable Garden

Vegetable Garden Growing Tips

The back porch is a great place to start a vegetable garden. Growing a garden is cheaper and healthier than shopping at a grocery store. Organic fruit and vegetables are the healthiest option, but too expensive. Non-organics are sprayed with pesticides and other chemicals, plus they lack taste. Starting an organic vegetable garden on the back porch will save you money. Walking out the back door to pick a fresh, lush tomato is all around better than driving to the grocery store. A porch garden can yield plenty of vegetables, fruits, herbs, and flowers.

Tools to Start a Back Porch Vegetable Garden:

- patio, yard or back porch space

- potting soil

- containers, pots, garden boxes, patio garden stand, or upside down planters

- tomatoes, potatoes, strawberries, peppers, herbs, list of flowers or vegetables

- source for water

- small garden shovel

Step 1 - Choose the Back Porch Garden Vegetables

Make a grow list. Include easy growing fruit and vegetables like tomatoes, strawberries, potatoes, and bell peppers. Tomatoes are easy to grow. The vegetable growing list depends on what you like. Choose vegetables that grow in your climate and fit your porch gardening space. For example, growing corn or sunflowers on a back porch garden limited by height wont work well. Consider the amount of shade and sun in the garden space during Spring, Summer, and early Fall. Each vegetable grows best in a certain environment. You don't want to plant something that n eed full sun in a shaded area. Consider growing herbs like basil, cilantro, thyme, rosemary, lavender, mint, and parsley. Picking fresh herbs and vegetables from the back porch garden at dinnertime is great.

Step 2 - Buy Vegetable Containers - Planters, Hanging Planters, Wine Barrels, Mini Greenhouses

Choose planters. Garden containers come in many sizes. Hanging containers and self-watering planters are useful for small porches, patios, decks, or balconies. Gardening on the back porch or in a small space must consider utilizing the space in the best way possible. New gardeners or gardeners who don't want to spend a lot of time on maintenance should look for vegetable containers and planters that accommodate them. Buy ready-to-plant garden planters and containers. These ready made planters are easier to assemble than anything from IKEA! Just follow the directions and you have an almost fool-proof Sprinkler Installat ion Denton back porch gardening container for growing herbs, flowers, and veggies.

EarthBox Garden Kit - Just Add Soil, Seeds, and Water - Easy Garden Planter

The EarthBox Garden Kit is an easy-to-use, ready-to-plant, garden container ideal for porches, decks, balconies, and windowsills. The EarthBox Garden Kit is an indoor/outdoorEarthBox Garden Kit for Back Porch Vegetable GardensCredit: mobile garden container on wheels and it is the easiest way to grow an organic garden on the porch. The mobility is useful with back porch gardens, for example, allowing you to m ove it in and out of the sun or shade, and even rolling it inside if the temperature drops too low. The EarthBox Garden Kit is an Amazon best seller because it is easy to use -- just add the planting soil, seeds, and water, then wait. The EarthBox Garden Kit is perfect for a porch garden and is recommended by Amazon customers because of its simplicity. Save money and buy the EarthBox Garden Kit from Amazon. Follow the instructions and watch the back porch veggies grow.

Step 3 - Plant the Vegetables for the Garden

The EarthBox Garden Kit is a great planter for a back porch garden. There are other ready-to-grow or just-add-soil planters available, depending on what you want to grow and how much room the garden is taking up. There are ready to grow tomato plants as well as potatoes and other vegetables and fruits.

Plant at least one fruit or vegetable from the "Dirty Dozen" list. The Dirty Dozen iDirty Dozen - Fruits and Veggies People Should Buy OrganicCredit: jpwriters a list of fruits and vegetables that the Department of Agriculture has determined are full of the most pesticides. This list is used by people to decide when it is important to actually spend the extra money and buy organic vegetables. Back porch gardens give you a chance to save money (and your health) by planting and growing organic gardens. Out of the 12 fruits and vegetables strawberries are really easy to grow in a back porch garden. Amazon sells all sorts of fruit and vegetable seeds and starter plants, including Tribute Everbearing Strawberries that are great for eating fresh and freezing after you're surprised so many strawberries grew in your garden.


If you want to start a garden from seeds then use one o f the germination stations. Buying fruit or vegetable plant starts is the easiest way to start planting a porch garden.

Document the Gardening Process to Make a Healthier Back Porch Garden Next Time

Go easy if this is your the first garden. Use a calendar to take notes about your gardening process. Write detailed Sprinkler System Installation information, like when the name of the seeds you planted, date the first seed sprouted, how many potatoes grew, or the number of weeks it took tomatoes to ripen. This is very valuable information that you can use year after year. Gardening is trial and error at times. Using your written guidelines will enable you to plant an expanding back porch garden over the years.

Back Porch Garden Tips:

Do not plant outside until the temperature is consistently warm and there is no chance of freezing weather. Check planting information for your specific garden vegetables .

Spraying weeds in your yard can get into the soil of your garden depending on where you are spraying. The water can run into the soil or the wind can carry it to the leaves and soil of your garden. Be careful to only spray on non-windy days if you do decide to use any gardening sprays.

Make sure that potted plants have a way to drain properly. If potted garden plants cannot drain then they can get mildew and root rot, which can damage the plant.

Put a hummingbird feeder on the back porch, too. Hummingbirds are fun to watch and they also pollenate flowers.

Sunday, 18 June 2017

Richa's Articles in Gardening - Article Dashboard Directory | Submit Articles | Search Find Free Content

Richa's Articles in Gardening

Air Duct Cleaning for Indoor Gardening

Air ducts are the lungs of an indoor garden. They deliver fresh air Sprinkler System Arlington and remove stale air, ensuring that your plants get necessary carbon dioxide and oxygen to thrive. Ducting performs an important role in removing excess heat from indoor greenhouses. Ducts are also used in heating and air conditioning.Indoor Gardening with a Dark Room Grow Tent

Indoor gardening can be a satisfying alternativ e for people who don't have the resources to build an outdoor garden.Dark Room Grow Tent Vs. Homemade Grow Room

For hydroponic enthusiasts who do all their gardening indoors, a grow room is a good investment. It allows the grower to provide the exact growing conditions that plants need. Grow rooms can either be made at home or bought from a hydroponics store, for example, the Dark Room grow tent. Before you decide to go for a homemade grow tent or a readymade one, here's what you should knowQuality Growing by Additives and Stimulants

Plants need a regular supply of essential nutrients and compounds to grow to their fullest potential. Since hydroponics does not involve the use of soil, it becomes necessary for you to specially add these compounds to the growing medium. While you can prepare your own nutrients at home, it can be difficult and tedious to know the exact mixture and proportion of nutrients.Monitoring pH Levels & TDS in Hydroponics Growing

Hydroponics involves providing plants with adequate water, oxygen, and nutrients in balanced quantities. Maintaining this balance is essential for optimum plant growth and yield. For this, you should monitor the levels of pH and total dissolved solids (TDS) of the nutrient solution or soil you use. What do these terms mean? The pH scale measures the acidic or alkaline content of a substance. TDS refers to the combination of inorganic salts and organic matter that are dissolved in water.How to Use Canna Coco Nutrients

In hydroponics, the growing medium you use for your plants can greatly influence your plants' growth and overall health. This is because the growing medium is a substrate, which provides support to the plant. In addition, the plant also receives all its nutrients from the growing media.How to Install a Carbon Filter

Hydroponics is all about growing plants without using soil. In hydroponic gardening, plants are grown in alternative media like coir, rockwool, water-based media, etc. Air filtration is another important part of hydroponics.Best Nutrient Solutions for Summer Growing

Summer means heat. If you live in a warm place, excessive heat can affect your plants, especially those grown indoors. Some plants thrive in plenty of sunlight while others will require shade. Because of the summer heat, plants often do not get the water they require.How to Set-Up and Use Filtration Kits

Proper air quality management is vital in hydroponics. Even if you have a small garden, ensure that your plants receive their required air supply. Plants utilize the carbon dioxide present in air to prepare their food. Inadequate air supply deprives your plants of nourishment and makes them droop and wilt. Improper air supply can also leave your plants vulnerable to many diseases.Charcoal Carbon Filters

Hydroponics does away with the need for soil to g row plants in, thus allowing indoor cultivation of plants. An essential requirement for indoor green rooms and nurseries is an efficient air filtration system to ensure that the growing plants have access to adequate fresh air. Carbon filters are ideal for this purpose.Can Fans - High-Humidity In-line Fans

Can Fans are in-line ventilation fans designed to work in tandem with Can Filters, for temperature and odor control in hydroponic nurseries and greenhouses. They are a perfect example of the marriage between cutting edge exhaust design and technology that promises efficiency and performance.Finding the Right Hydroponic Nutrients for Your Plants

Hydroponics is a great way to maintain your own indoor garden without having to worry about what type of soil to use for different plants, how to obtain it, how much space the garden will occupy, etc. In the hydroponic method of gardening, a plant is grown in a water solution or a specially designed growing medium like rockwoo l, peat moss, vermiculite, etc.Rockwool - Hydroponic Growing Medium

Rockwool Sprinkler System Installation Arlington is a very popular hydroponics growing medium. Rockwool is a porous substance that forms when a mixture of rocks, mostly basalt and dolomite, is melted at high temperature and specially processed. Given the material's neutral nature, it is used to build plant-growing medium granules or slabs, blocks, plugs, cubes, etc.Choosing Hydroponic Nutrients for Your Garden

In hydroponics, plants do not grow in soil. Instead, the plants are grown in a water-based medium or other growing mediums like coir, rockwool, etc. Growing plants using hydroponics is advantageous in urban areas, where space is at a premium. It also benefits those regions where the soil is not conducive to gardening.Passive Hydroponics

Passive hydroponics, also known as hydroculture, is one of the techniques of hydroponics. Hydropo nics refers to the method of growing plants without soil. Instead of soil, hydroponics depends on a special substrate, known as a hydroponic growing medium.Springtime Indoor Gardening

Spring is the season of growth and new life for plants. It is also the busiest time of the year for gardeners. From sowing seeds to controlling pests, the passing of winter can mean a lot of work. The results, however, make it worth it. If you grow your plants indoors using hydroponics, read this guide to understand the various factors involved in springtime indoor gardening.Hydroponics Myths & Reality

Though, hydroponics is now an established method of plant cultivation certain misconceptions about it have worked against its wider acceptance among laypeople as well as gardening enthusiasts. Though associations and bodies representing concerned professionals, enthusiasts etc. have sought to dispel these myths, many of these have persisted through the decades and continue to bedevil the hy droponics industry.Plant Nutrition in Hydroponics

Hydroponics cultivation is considered to be superior to conventional cultivation because of the numerous advantages it offers. Both commercial scale production and small scale crop cultivation using hydroponics techniques have proved to be advantageous in many respects. One of the advantages of hydroponics is its simplicity.All about Indoor Gardening

Modern scientific techniques make it possible for people to grow plants, vegetables and even fruit right in their drawing room in indoor gardens. With the some effort and knowledge you can now grow a variety of plants indoors, either with hydroponics, which is a soilless growing technique or by using suitable techniques for conventional geoponics (growing in soil).Hydroponics in Commercial Food Production

With the first successful application of hydroponics techniques in the 1930s the stage was set for a paradigm shift in crop production from conventional geoponics o r cultivation in soil to hydroponics or soil less cultivation.Indoor Hydroponics Systems

Though plants have been traditionally grown outdoors in soil, with the use of hydroponics techniques, it is possible to grow plants indoors, in fact in any place.

Hydroponics techniques have been successfully used to cultivate a wide variety of plants even in places with climates that do not support plant growth like deserts and Polar Regions.

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Saturday, 17 June 2017

Atlanta Botanical Garden's gun ban upheld by judge

ATLANTA -- A judge has ruled that the Atlanta Botanical

Garden has the right to bar its visitors from bringing in firearms, even though

the garden operates on public property.

News outlets report that Fulton County Judge Gail Tusan

ruled Thursday that despite the public ownership of the land, the botanica l

garden is a private entity and may lawfully prohibit guns.

Court records show Phillip Evans, a gun rights group

member with a state firearms license, was escorted out of the botanical garden

in 2014 for wearing a handgun in a waistband holster. His attorney argued that

the garden leases land from the city of Atlanta and cannot keep properly

licensed people from carrying weapons there.'

Georgia law allows guns on

government land and in government buildings, with some exceptions.

2016 The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed., AZ href=' gun-ban-upheld-judge/'>

Friday, 16 June 2017

E3 2017: In Videogames, It's the End of the World and Nothing Feels Fine

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decades of experience behind them, our distribution and franchise

lawyers help clients navigate the state and federal regulatory

minefields that underlie the management of national and international

distribution channels and franchise networks. Our Distribution &

Franchise Group consists of more than 25 attorneys who focus on a

variety of related disciplines that intersect with traditional

distribution and franchising issues. Our areas of focus include:

Establishment and Maintenance of Dealership and Franchise Networks;

Enforcement of Operating Standards; Pricing, Incentives and Promotional

Programs; Financial and Privacy Issues; Antitrust and Trade Regulation

Counseling and Litigation; Class Action Litigation; and Bankruptcy and

Financially Distressed Operations. Over the last 30 years, our D&F

attorneys have compiled an extraordinary track record litigating and

arbitrating hundreds of cases in industries that deliver goods and

services as varied as appliances, fast food, apparel, financial

services, petroleum, motor vehicles, heavy equipment, furniture, office

equipment and alcoholic beverages. We have obtained numerous dismissals,

summary judgments, trial verdicts and appellate decisions in favor of

our clients.


(816) 983-8000

(816) 983-8080 FAX

4801 Main Street, Kansas City, MO 64112



CONTACT: Donald A. Culp, Partner; John Moore, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: The Franchise and Distribution Law Practice Group

represents clients in all aspects of the structure, implementation,

maintenance and financing of franchise and distribution businesses.


(416) 863-2400

(416) 863-2653 FAX

Commerce Court West, #2800, 199 Bay Street, Toronto, ON M5L 1A9




CONTACT: Peter Viitre, Partner; Chris Hale, Partner

Calgary Office

855-2nd Street S.W., Suite 3500, Bankers Hall East Tower, Calgary,

AB T2P 4J8 Canada

Vancouver Office

595 Burrard Street, Suite 2600, Three Bentall Centre, Vancouver, BC

V7X 1L3 Canada

Montreal Office

600 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Suite 2200 Montreal, Quebec H3A


Ottawa Office

45 O'Connor Street, Suite 2000, World Exchange Plaza, Ottawa,

ON K1P 1A4



(313) 259-7777

1901 St. Antoine Street, 6th Floor at Ford Field, Detroit, MI 48226



CONTACT: Thomas J. Tallerico, Partner; Dennis J. Levasseur, Partner

Troy Office

201 W. Big Beaver Road, Suite 500, Troy, MI 48084

Ann Arbor Office

110 Miller, Suite 300, Ann Arbor, MI 48104

Cheboygan Office

229 Court Street, P.O. Box 405, Cheboygan, MI 49721

TYPE OF BUSINESS: 130-attorney business law firm serving clients in

Michigan, throughout the U.S. and internationally. We can assist

franchisors and franchisees in commercial litigation and alternative

dispute resolution, intellectual property matters including patent and

copyright protection, labor and e mployment law, corporate and securities

law, regulatory compliance, mergers, acquisitions and divestitures,

environmental law, bankruptcy, construction law, real property law and

tax law matters.


(310) 576-2132

(310) 576-2200 FAX

120 Broadway, Suite 300, Santa Monica, CA 90401-2386



CONTACT: Kenneth R. Costello, Partner; Jon Solish, Partner

Chicago Office

225 West Washington, Suite 260, Chicago, IL 60606-3418

Houston Office

1401 McKinney Street, #2700, Houston, TX 77010

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Bryan Cave, LLP is an 800 lawyer, international

law firm whose franchise lawyers are globally recognized authorities,

frequent speakers and authors, including a leading 3-vo lume franchise

treatise, who serve on numerous industry editorial and advisory boards,

and are commentators for franchise and major business news media. Our

clients range from start-up to Global 50 domestic and international

franchising and distribution businesses, in a broad range of industries,

who require sophisticated and complex legal support, including antitrust

counseling; regulatory compliance; litigation and arbitration; mergers

and acquisitions; intellectual property protection, and more.


(305) 347-4080

(305) 347-4089 FAX

Bank of America Tower, 34th Floor, 100 SE Second Street, Miami, FL




CONTACT: Leslie Smith-Porter, Attorney

Pittsburgh Office

(412) 562-8957

(412) 562-1041 FAX

One Oxford Center, 401 Grant Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1410

CONTACT: John R. Previs

Washington, DC Office

(202) 833-7099 FAX

1700 K Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20006-3807

Princeton Office

(609) 520-0360 FAX

700 Alexander Park, Sutie 300, Princeton, NJ 08540-6347


CONTACT: Frank B. Harrington, Associate

Tampa Office

(813) 222-8189 FAX

401 East Jackson Street, Suite 2500, Tampa, FL 33602-5236


CONTACT: Peter M. Cardillo, Shareholder

TYPE OF BUSINESS: The lawyers in Buchanan's Franchise and

Distribution Group provide clients with comprehensive knowledge in

multiple legal disciplines. Encompass ing the areas of corporate finance,

federal and state regulation compliance, intellectual property,

litigation, labor and employment, government contracts, tax and real

estate, Buchanan's Franchise and Distribution Practice Group is a

cross-section of attorneys who are recognized leaders in their fields.

With 16 offices across the nation and access to Buchanan's more

than 550 attorneys and government relations professionals, we provide

our franchise and distribution clients with business and strategic

solutions that address the full spectrum of franchise-related issues in

more than 40 industries including: food chain, hospitality, dry

cleaning, retail, fashion design, real estate, car rental, as well as

education and training. Additional Offices: Alexandria, VA; Aventura,

FL; Buffalo, NY; Harrisburg, PA; Miami, FL; New York, NY; Philadelphia,

PA; Pittsburgh, PA; Princeton, NJ; Red wood Shores, CA; San Diego, CA;

Tampa, FL; Washington, DC; and Wilmington, DE.


(888) 895-2080

(303) 792-5595

(303) 708-0527 FAX

40 Inverness Drive East, Denver, CO 80112



CONTACT: Peter Burg, Shareholder

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Burg Simpson focuses on complex litigation

matters. The firm is frequently retained as litigation counsel in

disputes involving franchisors and franchisees. The firm has offices in

Colorado, Wyoming, Texas, Ohio, Arizona and Washington, D.C.


(877) 875-9636

(813) 224-9255

(813) 223-9620 FAX

P.O. Box 3913, Tampa, FL 33601-3913



CONTACT: Edward O. Savitz, Attorney; Mark A. Basurto, Attorney



(305) 530-0050

(305) 530-0055 FAX

100 SE Second Street, Suite 4000, Miami, FL 33131



CONTACT: Jason M. Murray, Shareholder

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Carlton Fields provides legal counsel and

assistance with creating, managing, licensing, protecting and enforcing

franchised business relationships, product distribution systems and

dealership networks. The law fir-m's franchise and distribution law

practice specifically relates to licensing and development, regulation

and compliance, and dispute resolution through negotiation, mediation,

arbitration and lit igation.


(416) 860-2987

(416) 869-5982

(416) 640-3043 FAX

40 King Street West, Suite 2100, Scotia Plaza, Toronto, ON M5H 3C2




CONTACT: Larry Weinberg, Partner; Geoff Shaw, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Cassels Brock is a Toronto based full-service

business law firm. Our Franchise Law Group is recognized across Canada and around the world for its extensive legal and practical experience in

all facets of franchising.


(312) 243-1701

(312) 243-1721 FAX

1101 West Fulton Market, Suite 200, Chicago, IL 60607



CONTACT: Fredric A. Cohen, Member; Amy Cheng, Member



(215) 659-3600

(215) 659-3222 FAX

721 Dresher Road, Suite 1100, Horsham, PA 19025



CONTACT: Harris J. Chernow, Attorney

Westmont Office

216 Haddon Avenue, #704, Westmont, NJ 08108

Philadelphia Office

1515 Market Street, #1410, Philadelphia, PA 19102

Baltimore Office

10995 Owings Mills Blvd.--Suite 208, Owings Mills, MD21117

TYPE OF BUSINESS: A national franchise, intellectual property and

business law firm providing comprehensive, practical, solution-oriented

counseling. Representing single and multi unit franchisees, franchisors,

distributors, and area and master developers wit h franchise,

transactional, regulatory and dispute resolution matters. Offices in PA,

NJ, MD and DC.


(877) 413-6482

(416) 413-9822

(416) 324-5439 FAX

22 St. Clair Avenue East, Suite 1010, Toronto, ON M4T 2S3 Canada



CONTACT: Markus Cohen, Managing Director; Lisa Bertucca, Executive


TYPE OF BUSINESS: Practising law since 1964, Mark limits his law

practice to franchise and--as a Certified Specialist in Ontario,

Canada--trademark law.


(973) 535-0500

(973) 535-9217 FAX

85 Livingston Avenue, Roseland, NJ 07068


Internet: http://www.connellfo

CONTACT: Bryan P. Couch, Attorney; Jeffrey L. O'Hara, Attorney

Jersey City Office

2510 Plaza Five, Jersey City, NJ 07311-4029

New York Office

888 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10106

Philadelphia Office

1500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full-service law firm with more than 115

attorneys and more than twenty distinct practice areas to meet corporate

clients' needs.


(888) 287-6777

(303) 768-0027 FAX

13710 East Rice Place, Aurora, CO 80015



CONTACT: Michael J. Katz, President & CEO

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Franchisee Consulting and Brokerage.


(202) 662-6000

(202) 662-6291 FAX

1201 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20004-2401



CONTACT: Henriette Tielemans, Partner



55 21 2553 181

55 21 2553 1812 FAX

Rua Marques de Olinda, 70, Rio De Janeiro 22251-040 Brazil



CONTACT: Luiz Henrique O. do Amaral, Partner; Peter Dirk Siemsen,

Senior Partner



(416) 941-5399

(416) 365-7886 FAX

1 First Canadian Place, Suite 5600, Toronto, ON MX5 1E2 Canada



CONTACT: John L. Rogers, National Chair, Toronto; Dana Schindelka,

Vice Chair, Calgary

Vancouver Office

2800 Park Place, 666 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC V6C 2Z7 Canada

Calgary Office

3000 Shell Centre, 400-4th Avenue SW, Calgary, AB T2P 0J4 Canada

Montreal Office

1010 de la Gauchetiere St. West, #2250, Montreal, QCH3B 2N2 Canada

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Davis LLP's National Franchise &

Licensing Group has extensive experience in all aspects of franchise law

including structuring franchise systems; drafting franchise agreements;

disclosure documents and related agreements; and expanding foreign

franchise systems to Canada. Our Group also specializes in related areas

including intellectual property; international law; internet and

e-commerce; personal information disclosure and privacy; arbitration and

litigation; employment law; tax, and competition (anti-trust) law. Davis

& Company has offices in 7 cities in Canada including Vancouver,

Toronto, Calgary and Montreal and is the only Canadian firm with an

office in Japan (Tokyo). Our Franchise & Distribution Group is led

by John L. Rogers, who is one of only six franchise lawyers listed in

L'Expert's 2002 Guide to Leading 500 Lawyers in Canada, and is

a past director of IFA's Supplier Forum. Established in 1892.


(503) 241-2300

(503) 778-5299 FAX

1300 SW Fifth Avenue, Suite 2300, Portland, OR 97201



CONTACT: Riley Lagesen, Associate



(973) 966-8068

(973) 966-1015 FAX

P.O. Box 1945, Morristown, NJ 07962



CONTACT: Dennis R. LaFiura, Esq., Managing Partner; David S. Sager,


TYPE OF BUSINESS: Day Pitney LLP is a law firm that has represented

franchisors in hundreds of disputes involving terminations, trademark

infringement, and enforcing system standards. Industry expertise

includes motor vehicles, hotels, real estate brokerage, and others.


+61 3 8686 6000

+61 3 8686 6505 FAX

385 Bourke Street, Melbourne, Victoria, 03000 Australia



CONTACT: Greg Hipwell, Partner; Stephen Giles, Partner

Brisbane Office

Riverside Centre, 123 Eagle Street, Brisbane, QLD 04000 Australia

Sydney Office

1 Alfred Street, Circular Quay, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Legal firm specializing in providing legal and

business advice to franchising and distribution clients. We are

generally regarded as Australia's leading franchise law firm.


(202) 420-2200

(202) 420-2201 FAX

1825 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006



CONTACT: Alan Schaeffer, Esq., Partner; Andrew J. Sherman, Esq.,


TYPE OF BUSINESS: Dickstein Shapiro LLP is a full service law firm

with 400 attorneys in offices in Wa shington, DC, New York City, and Los

Angeles, representing clients in diverse industries with a wide variety

of requirements. Our franchise and licensing attorneys have extensive

experience in franchise, licensing and distribution transactions and

regulation and they regularly advise manufacturers, licensors and

franchisors with respect to all aspects of franchise and distribution

systems development, implementation and channel management, leveraging

intellectual property, and counseling on general corporate and

commercial matters. The firm's franchising clients represent a wide

range of industries, including, restaurants and food services; medical

devices and health care; building materials; home remodeling/repair;

information technology; fashion and apparel; accounting and business

consulting; specialty retail; landscaping; for-profit

education/training; children's activities; l odging and hospitality;

cleaning/maintenance; travel/tourism; automotive manufacturing,

distribution, maintenance and repair; convenience stores and service

stations; professional sports franchises; hair care and personal

services; and retail electronics.


+61 (732) 46400261

+61 (732) 294077 FAX

Level 29 Waterfront Place, 1 Eagle Street, Brisbane, Queensland

04075 Australia



CONTACT: Tony Conahan, Partner



(312) 368-4000

(312) 236-7516 FAX

203 North LaSalle Street, Suite 1800 JY, Chicago, IL 60601-1293



CONTACT : Lewis G. Rudnick, Dennis E. Wieczorek; Fredric A. Cohen,

Michael G. Brennan

Washington, D.C. Office

(202) 223-2085 FAX

1200 Nineteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-2412


CONTACT: Philip F. Zeidman; John Dienelt; Erik B. Wulff

Dallas Office

(214) 743-4545 FAX

1717 Main Street, Suite 4600, Dallas, TX 75201-4605


CONTACT: Ann Hurwit

Tampa Office

(813) 229-2111

(813) 229-1447 FAX

101 E. Kennedy Boulevard, Suite 2000, Tampa, FL33602


CONTACT: David A. Beyer

Reston Office

(703) 773-4000

(703) 773-5000 FAX

1775 Wiehle Avenue, Suite 400, Reston, VA 20190


CONTACT: H. Bret Lowell; Barry Heller

TYPE OF BUSINESS: DLA Piper is a national commercial law firm. We

concentrate our practice in franchising and distribution, complex and

general civil litigation and arbitration, trademark and intellectual

property, information technology, antitrust and trade regulation,

international, securities, mergers and acquisitions, real estate,

leasing, environmental, finance, venture capital, emerging companies,

telecommunications, business regulation, health, banking and labor law.

We have practiced franchising, distribution and related areas of law for

more than 40 years. The 25 partners in our franchising and distribution

law group average in excess of 20 years of experience in those fields.

We represent companies engaged in domestic and international franchising

and distributi on matters, including structuring, documentation,

counseling, litigation and arbitration, technology, finance and

regulatory compliance. Our clients operate in most of the business

sectors that have adopted franchising as a method of distribution and

represent a broad spectrum of size and experience, from entrepreneurs

and start-up companies to large franchisors, manufacturers and

distributors. Our clients oversee networks that range from dozens to

thousands of outlets. The majority of our clients are franchisors and

distribution companies, but we also represent multiple outlet, area

development and master franchisees and franchising-joint ventures, on a

wide variety of franchising, distribution, corporate, real estate,

finance, securities, environmental, tax and other matters. Our practice

is international in scope. We have done work for clients in over 100

countries. We serve as General Counsel to the International Franchise

Association. The firm has offices that practice franchise and

distribution law in Chicago (312) 368-4000, Washington, D.C. (202)

861-3900, Northern Virginia (703) 733-4000, Atlanta (404) 736-7800,

Dallas (214) 743-4500, Tampa (813) 229-2111, Los Angeles (310) 595-3000,

Baltimore (410) 580-3000, New York (212) 835-6000 and Philadelphia (215)



(800) 566-1718

(206) 903-8700

(206) 903-8820 FAX

1420 5th Avenue, Suite 3400, Seattle, WA 98101



CONTACT: Gary R. Duvall, Partner

Seattle Office

1420 Fifth Avenue, Suite 3400, Seattle, WA 98101

CONTACT: Gary R. Duvall, CFE

Palo Alto Office

1717 Embarcad ero Road, Palo Alto, CA 94303

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Our Franchise and Distribution Law practice group

helps clients expand through franchising and other distribution methods.

Our clients are both US and International.


(310) 828-9050

(310) 828-9101 FAX

1620 26th Street, North Tower, 6th Floor, Santa Monica, CA 90404



CONTACT: Susan Grueneberg, Partner; Robert L. Kahan, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: With offices in Los Angeles, New York and

Stamford, Connecticut, we are a full-service firm with an active

franchise practice that includes national and international clients. We

have expertise in structuring franchise and other types of distribution

programs, registration and disclosure compliance, franchise litiga tion

and related areas such as mergers and acquisitions of franchise

companies. In addition to all aspects of franchise law, we are

especially well-positioned to assist clients in the areas of business

litigation, corporate law, employment law, entertainment litigation,

financial institutions law, insurance law, intellectual property and

high technology law, real estate law and securities litigation. Our

clientele includes national and regional franchise and subfranchise

programs, domestic and multinational Fortune 500 companies, emerging

companies and individuals in diverse areas of business.


(212) 391-9500

(212) 391-9025 FAX

104 West 40th Street, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10018



CONTACT: Michael Einbinder, Partner



(303) 659-7342

(303) 659-1051 FAX

600 17th Street, Suite 2800 South, Denver, CO 80202-5428



CONTACT: Van Elmore, Principal

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Legal services for domestic & international

franchising including Uniform Franchise Offering Circular and contract

drafting, state franchise offering registration, trademark registration

and licensing, copyright registration and licensing, software licenses and Internet agreements. Mr. Elmore also provides mediation and

arbitration for domestic and international franchise disputes.

Previously Vice President and General Counsel for a 450 unit franchise

system. Mr. Elmore has also been a franchisee and has conversational

ability i n the Russian language. Established in 1992.


+44 845 497 4862

+44 207 919 4500

+44 207 919 4919 FAX

Senator House, 85 Queen Victoria Street, London EC4V 4JL United




CONTACT: Christopher Wormald, Partner--Head of Franchising; Martin

Mendelsohn, Chair, European Franchising Group

TYPE OF BUSINESS: International Commercial law firm with offices in

10 UK cities: London, Birmingham, Cardiff. Ipswich, Leeds, Manchester,

Newcastle, Norwich, Nottingham and overseas locations including

Brussels, Paris, Munich and Shanghai. Associated offices in Copenhagen,

Milan, Rome and Sofia, Singapore (including Indonesia) and Kuala Lumpa.

Specialist areas include: International and domestic Franchising;

dis tribution and supply arrangements; licensing; intellectual property;

UK and European anti-trust laws; and the complete range of business and

corporate legal services.


(800) 328-4393

(612) 766-7000

(612) 766-1600 FAX

2200 Wells Fargo Center, 90 South Seventh Street, Minneapolis, MN




CONTACT: Brian Schnell, Partner; Bill L. Killion, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Franchising is our Passion/E. Franchising also is

one of the most dynamic and exciting growth vehicles in our global

economy. To achieve its objectives in the challenging, yet rewarding,

franchise world, a franchisor must partner with a legal team that not

only understands franchising, but also takes the time to understand the

franchis or's business and objectives. We know the franchise

business top to bottom, including the complexities created by the

overlap of state and federal law. We also understand the challenges of

building and operating a franchise system. It's your business. You

need answers and we'll provide unparalleled legal support.


(215) 825-3100

(215) 545-8313 FAX

21 South 21st Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103



CONTACT: Lane Fisher, Member; Jeff Zucker, Member

Cherry Hill Office

402 Park Boulevard, Cherry Hill, NJ 08002

Brunswick Office

777 Gloucester Street, Suite 355, Brunswick, GA 31520

TYPE OF BUSINESS: FisherZucker LLC's practice is dedicated to

franchising. With offices in Pe nnsylvania and New Jersey, we assist

franchisors in development, regulatory compliance, operations and

enforcement matters. Contact us for information.


(510) 451-3309

(510) 451-1537 FAX

1221 Broadway, 21st Floor, Oakland, CA 94612



CONTACT: Mary Beth Trice, Special Counsel



(608) 258-4273

(608) 258-4258 FAX

P.O. Box 1497, Madison, WI 53701-1497



CONTACT: Bobbi Howell, Esq., Partner



(201) 845-1000

(201) 845-9112 FAX

218 Route 17 North, Rochelle Park, NJ 07662



CONTACT: Daniel M. Eliades, Member; Charles M. Forman, Member

Philadelphia Office

1615 Jackson Street, Philadelphia, PA 19145

Suffern Office

400 Rella Boulevard, Suite 214, Suffern, NY 10901

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Forman Holt & Eliades represents some of the

largest franchisors in the world in bankruptcy cases throughout the

United States. The firm regularly represents franchisors in a broad

range of bankruptcy litigation including plan confirmation issues, asset

sales, stay litigation, preference matters, claim objections and

intellectual property protection.


(412) 391-1334

(412) 391-6984 FAX

625 Liberty Avenue, 29th Floor, Pittsburgh, PA 15222-3115



CONTACT: Gerald A. Cook, Attorney & CoChair, Franchising

Practice; Elizabeth D. Sigety, Attorney & Co-Chair, Franchising


Philadelphia Office

2000 Market Street, 10th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103

New York Office

100 Park Avenue, Suite 1500, New York, NY 10017

San Francisco Office

235 Pine Street, Suite 1500San Francisco, CA94104

West Palm Beach Office

222 Lakeview Avenue, Suite 700, West Palm Beach, FL33401

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Our attorneys provide solutions for the business

and litigation needs of the franchising and distribution community. Our

clients range from international corporations to

entrepreneurial/start-up com panies in the manufacturing, retail, food,

entertainment and service. industries, among others. Our experienced

team is comprised of approximately 25 attorneys throughout the firm who

focus on the many disciplines involved in the business of franchising

and distribution. Fox Rothschild LLP is a full-service law firm built to

serve business leaders. Over the past 100 years, we have grown to 400

lawyers in 14 offices coast to coast. Our clients come to us because we

understand their issues, their priorities, and the way they think. We

help clients manage risk and make better decisions by offering

practical, innovative advice. For more information about Fox Rothschild

LLP, please visit


(866) 986-0099

(410) 986-0099

(410) 986-0123 FAX

20 South Charles Street, 3rd Floor, B altimore, MD 21201



CONTACT: David L. Cahn, Owner; David G. Ross, Of Counsel,

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Boutique practice focused on representing the

legal needs of franchisors and franchisees.


(646) 215-7903

(646) 215-7908 FAX

142 West End Avenue, Suite 30P, New York, NY 10023



CONTACT: Jeffrey Kolton, Principal

TYPE OF BUSINESS: FMV assists start-ups in analyzing franchising;

established franchise systems seeking alternative expansion methods; and

vendors looking to increase their market share within the franchise



(888) 372-6529 (888) FRANLAW

(630) 571-5626

(630) 571-1882 FAX

1301 West 22nd Street, Suite 709, Oak Brook, IL 60523-2006



CONTACT: Michael R. Liss, Esq., Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Complete franchise legal services, at

cost-effective prices. 25 year background representing franchisors and

franchisees in franchise agreement, offering circular, and registration

compliance issues. Negotiates contracts and litigates disputes.

Expertise in franchise transfers, real estate leasing, selling

businesses, general business counseling, incorporating and trademarks.

Expert Witness. National Practice. Established in 1980.


(612) 492-7000

(612) 492-7077 FAX

200 South Sixth Street, Suite 4000, Minneapolis, MN 55402



CONTACT: Emily E. Duke, Chair, Franchise Group

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Fredrikson & Byron's Franchising Group

represents clients in every phase of franchising, both domestically and

internationally. Our attorneys handle business and legal issues for

companies ranging from the start-up franchisor to the mature franchise

system. Our services encompass a broad spectrum of legal expertise,

including structuring franchise programs, disclosure and registration,

preparing franchise and related agreements, compliance with franchise

laws in the United States and overseas, business planning, termination

of franchisees, advertising issues, intellectual property issues, sales

compliance, dealing with franchisee advisory councils and associations,

and antitrust issues. A s a result, our attorneys are intimately familiar

with U.S. federal and state laws and foreign laws that apply to

franchise companies doing business domestically and overseas.


(561) 395-5511

(561) 395-2648 FAX

The Plaza, Suite 801, 5355 Town Center Road, Boca Raton, FL 33486



CONTACT: Ronald N. Rosenwasser, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: FRG develops, reviews, and analyzes international

and domestic franchise programs and prepares all legal documents and

provides litigation and arbitration services.


(513) 651-6800

(513) 651-6745

(513) 651-6981 FAX

201 East 5th Street, Suite 2200, Cincinnati, OH 45202

Email: g


CONTACT: Grant S. Cowan, Member



(212) 935-3131

(212) 935-4514 FAX

845 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10022-6601



CONTACT: David T. Azrin, Esq., Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Experienced attorneys providing comprehensive

legal representation to franchisors and franchisees at a reasonable

cost. We handle UFOCs, contracts, litigation, employment, real estate,

and tax matters.


(305) 349-2333

(305) 349-2310 FAX

100 SE 2nd Street, 44th Floor, Bank of America, Miami, FL


Email: mjobl


CONTACT: Michael D. Joblove, Partner; Jonathan E. Perlman, Partner

Fort Lauderdale Office

200 East Broward Boulevard, Suite 1110, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33301

TYPE OF BUSINESS: GJB represent clients in complex commercial,

franchise, securities and employment litigation, bankruptcy, insolvency

and workout engagements representing debtors, trustees, committees,

creditors and receivers.



64-9-308-9922 FAX

P.O. Box 1542, Auckland 01140 New Zealand



CONTACT: Stewart Germann, Principal

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Lawyers and notary public providing legal

services in New Zealand. Specialists in franchising law, l icensing and

distribution agreements in particular. Stewart Germann is a Past

Chairman of the Franchise Association and has contacts throughout New

Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and the USA. The firm also

handles all aspects of property law including real estate leasing,

selling businesses, commercial law and company law in New Zealand.

Established in 1993.


(787) 759-8000

(787) 759-4139 FAX

250 Munoz Rivera Avenue, 14th Floor, San Juan, PR 00918



CONTACT: Rossell Barrios, Stockholder



5255 5202-7622

5255 5520-7671 FAX

Montes Urales No. 632 Piso 3, Lomas de Chapultepec, 11000 Mexico




CONTACT: Jorge Mondragon, Partner; Pablo Hooper, Partner,

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Gonzalez Calvillo, S.C. offers an active

franchising/IP practice as a full-service firm. Our practice ranges from

offering expert counsel related to legal, contractual, corporate and tax

structure for the implementation of franchises and licensing, and

assisting with registrations and prosecution to representing clients in

litigation and dispute resolution proceedings.



(604) 683-6498

(604) 683-3558 FAX

1055 Dunsmuir Street, Suite 2300, P.O. Box

49122, Vancouver, BC V7X 1J1 Canada



< br>CONTACT: Leonard H. Polsky, Partner; Edward N. Levitt, Partner

Toronto Office

100 King Street West, Suite 1600, Toronto, ON M5X 1G5 Canada,

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service law firm--domestic and international

practice--all aspects of franchise law, including business, contracts,

intellectual property protection, litigation and alternative dispute

resolution. Established in 1877. We are also patent and trademark



(800) 458-1705

(206) 624-8300

(206) 340-9599 FAX

Pier 70, 2801 Alaskan Way, Suite 300, Seattle, WA 98121-1128



CONTACT: David M. Byers, Attorney; Doug C. Berry, Attorney,

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service law firm providing franchisors and

franchisees a ll necessary legal services, including registration and

disclosure compliance, internet law, dispute resolution, intellectual

property protection, and legal compliance audits. Established in 1890.


(612) 632-3064

(202) 295-2202 D.C. Office

(612) 632-4064 FAX

80 South Eighth Street, 500 IDS Center, Minneapolis, MN 55402-3796



CONTACT: John W. Fitzgerald, Co-Chair, Franchise Group; Robert

Zisk, Co-Chair, Franchise Group

St. Cloud Office

1010 West St. Germain Street, Suite 600, St. Cloud, MN 56301

Washington, D.C. Office

2600 Virginia Ave., N.W., Suite 1111--The Watergate, Washington, DC


TYPE OF BUSINESS: Gray Plant Mooty is a full-service law firm with

approximately 160 attorneys. From our offices in Minnesota and

Washington, D.C., our 35 member Franchise and Distribution Team works

with franchisors throughout the U.S., Canada and many other countries.

Our clients' business objectives drive our approach to providing

legal services. We recognize that every step, from the initial

construction of a franchise concept through growth and expansion, will

directly impact the franchisor's future profits. We also understand

the dynamics and intricacies of franchisor-franchisee relationships, and

the importance of these relationships in maintaining the overall

integrity of the franchise system. Clients range from emerging and

start-up companies to mature, established franchisors. Our services

include franchise program development and regulatory compliance,

trademark counseling and registration, financing and acquisition,

relationship coun seling, financial fraud and underreporting.


(602) 445-8000

(602) 445-8100 FAX

2375 East Camelback Road, Suite 700, Phoenix, AZ 85016-3424


CONTACT: Jim Ullman; Jeff Wolf

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Greenberg Traurig's franchise team prides

itself on providing quality legal representation with a focus on

practical, business-oriented solutions. With more than 30 years of

franchise transactional and litigation experience, we have a thorough

understanding of both the legal and business aspects of franchising. Our

goal is to establish a long-term successful client relationship defined

by reliability, responsiveness, trust, and an unwavering commitment to

providing the highest quality legal services available.


< br>(314) 241-9090

(314) 421-0831 FAX

10 South Broadway, Suite 2000, St. Louis, MO 63102



CONTACT: Eric Riess, Esq., Practice Group Manager

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Attorneys and Counselors since 1895.


(702) 222-2500

(702) 365-6940 FAX

3930 Howard Hughes Parkway, 4th Floor, Las Vegas, NV 89169



CONTACT: Matt Kreutzer, Attorney; Brent Eckersley, Attorney

Reno Office

5441 Kietzke Lane, Second Floor, Reno, NV 89511

Carson City Office

777 East William Street, Suite 200, Carson City, NV 89701

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Hale Lane offers a full range of legal services

to franchisors, handling all aspects of the franchise relationship.

These services include: developing, protecting and licensing franchise

systems; franchisee negotiations, mediation, and litigation; creation of

Uniform Franchise Offering Circulars, franchise and license agreements.

Additionally, Hale Lane attorneys offer guidance and advice in a variety

of general business matters, including tax, estate planning, labor and

employment, real estate, and general commercial litigation.


44 (0121) 237-202044

44 (0121) 233-9686 FAX

120 Edmund Street, Birmingham B3 2ES United Kingdom



CONTACT: John P ratt, Partner; Gurmeet Jakhu, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: We are specialists with a worldwide reputation in

all aspects of franchising. Our clients range from

start-up companies to large multi-nationals.


(214) 651-5000

(214) 200-0855 FAX

901 Main Street, Suite 3100, Dallas, TX 75202


CONTACT: Joyce G. MazeroPartner

Washington, DC Office

(202) 654-4500

(202) 654-4501 FAX

1615 L Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Haynes and Boone's Franchise and

Distribution attorneys are experienced and internationally recognized

authorities in Franchise and Distribution law. We are perceived by many

as some of the best and most influential franchise lawyers in the world.

We are authors of countless books and articles, and are respected

sources of expertise for numerous publications and editorial boards.

With the support of Haynes and Boone's full-service client-oriented

team capabilities, we can help clients address the wide range of

domestic and international issues that affect their businesses in order

to construct meaningful and cost-effective solutions. We have the

specialized knowledge to assist companies to decide whether and how to

establish new franchise, licensing and distribution programs, both

domestically and internationally. We represent companies of all sizes

and in diverse industries, from retail to hospitality to manufacturing.

Our Franchise and Distribution Practice Group works alongside our

Corporate/Securities, Mergers & Acquisitions, Intellectual Property,

Venture Capital, Finance, Tax and Business Litigation Practice Groups,

providing the necessary assistance when business issues or problems

arise. We have represented clients in over 100 countries. The firm has

offices that practice franchise and distribution law in Dallas,

Washington, DC (202) 654-4540, and Mexico City (52-55) 55-40-5558.


(704) 343-2000

(704) 343-2300 FAX

201 North Tryon Street, Charlotte, NC 28231



CONTACT: Corby C. Anderson, Attorney; John Yorke, Attorney



(416) 977-3444

(416) 977-6666

(416) 977-3332 FAX

425 University Avenue, Suite 300, Toronto, ON M5G 1T6 Canada


Internet: http://www.hofferadl

CONTACT: Joseph Adler, Partner; Lloyd Hoffer, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: We assist US franchisors to expand their

franchise systems into Canada and represent a formidable, efficient and

cost-effective solution to your franchising legal problems and needs.


(888) 547-0697

(805) 550-9323

(562) 596-0116

(805) 547-0716 FAX

6621 E. Pacific Coast Hwy, Suite 250, Long Beach, CA 90803



CONTACT: David E. Holmes, Attorney; Loft Lofstrom, Attorney

San Luis Obispo Office

(562) 596-0416 FAX

4251 S. Higuera Street, #401, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Holmes & Lofstrom, LLP specializes in

franchising and has estab lished a national reputation in franchise law,

representing domestic and international franchise systems from start-up

through maturity. Our goal is to help franchisors achieve expansion,

through practical, careful legal advice and insight gained from our

extensive experience with franchise concepts at all stages of

development. We offer affordable rates and do not compromise on

personalized service. At Holmes & Lofstrom, you have a direct

relationship with an experienced franchise attorney, who not only has an

in-depth knowledge of franchise law, but also has worked with a wide

range of successful systems and can share with you some proven best

practices allowing you to avoid many of the challenges to which you

might otherwise be exposed. We look forward to becoming a member of your

team and a resource on which you can draw as you grow.


(804) 787-8089

(804) 788-8218 FAX

Riverfront Plaza, East Tower, 951 East Byrd Street, Richmond, VA




CONTACT: Patrick J. Maslyn, Counsel; Robert J. Grey, Jr., Partner

Miami Office

1111 Brickell Avenue, #2500, Miami, FL 33131

Washington, DC Office

1900 K Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20006-1109

Beijing Office

517-520 South Office Tower, No. 1 Guanghua Road, Beijing 100020

People's Republic of China

Brussels Office

Avenue Louise 326, #B6, Brussels 01050 Belgium

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Hunton & Williams represents franchisors at

all stages of development in domestic and international transactions,

litigation, and counseling matters.


(317) 236-2308

(317) 592-4730 FAX

One American Square, Box 82001, Indianapolis, IN 46282-0002



CONTACT: James L. Petersen, Partner; Phil Whistler, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Many businesses choose to expand through

distribution or dealership networks or by selling franchises. Ice Miller

offers legal services to manufacturers, distributors, dealers,

retailers, business owners, licensors, licensees, franchisors and

franchisees. Such services include drafting and negotiating contracts,

registering and prosecuting trademarks, facilitating dispute resolution

and assisting with litigation. Ice Miller prepares offering circulars

and state franchise registrations and advises on compliance with state

and federal franchise and business opportunity laws. Ice Miller also

provides a full range of legal services needed by parties for

distribution and franchise agreements, including real estate,

construction, environmental, international, employment, antitrust and

intellectual property.



+34-93-415-2051 FAX

Passeig de Gracia 103, #7, Barcelona 08008 Spain



CONTACT: Agustin Bou, Attorney



(416) 703-5716

(416) 703-6180 FAX

365 Bay Street, 2nd Floor, Toronto, ON M5H 2V1 Canada



CONTACT: Paul Jones, Barrister, Solicitor & Trade-mark Agent

TYPE OF BUSINESS: We are a multi-lingual law firm that focuses on

franchising and intellectual property in Canada and internationally. We

provide cost-effective service in multiple countries.


(801) 521-3200

(801) 328-0537 FAX

170 S. Main Street, Suite 1500, Salt Lake City, UT 84101


CONTACT: Glen Watkins, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Established in 1875, Jones Waldo provides

innovative solutions with the highest level of legal expertise. Our

Franchise Practice Group serves clients from many different industries,

ranging in size from start-up franchisors to national distribution

networks. Our Franchise Practice Group can assist franchisors in every

aspect of their business, from franchise creation and compliance, to

arbitration and litigat ion of franchise disputes. A full service firm,

Jones Waldo also has considerable experience in other legal areas. As a

result, we can assemble a customized legal team to address the most

challenging client needs.


(847) 501-5300

(847) 501-5325 FAX

181 Waukegan Road, Suite 205, Northfield, IL 60093



CONTACT: Daniel S. Kaplan, Partner; Richard A. Greenswag, Attorney

Chicago Office

(847) 501-5300

(847) 501-5325 FAX

600 West Jackson, 2nd Fir., Chicago, IL 60661

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Kaplan & Greenswag, LLC blends real-world,

practical business acumen with a thorough understanding of what makes

franchising a unique legal environment.


(757) 624-3257

(757) 624-3169 FAX

150 West Main Street, Suite 2100, Norfolk, VA 23510



CONTACT: Stephen E. Story, Member

TYPE OF BUSINESS: The largest law firm in southeastern Virginia

(with offices in Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Chesapeake, Hampton, Newport

News, Williamsburg, and Richmond) generally representing franchisors and

franchisees in counseling and litigation.


(212) 755-3100

(212) 755-3174 FAX

777 Third Avenue, 24th Floor, New York, NY 10017


CONTACT: David J. Kaufmann, Senior Partner; Jeffrey E. Kolton,


TYPE OF BUSINESS: New York's premier fran chise law firm, which

prides itself on serving both novice and mature franchisors in a

comprehensive fashion. All of the partners and associates at Kanfmann

Feiner possess expertise in the field of franchising, as well as all

other fields germane to franchisors, including corporate/securities;

real estate; finance; transactional; advertising; and labor. In

addition, Kaufmann Feiner's extensive litigation capabilities

routinely give rise to landmark franchise rulings around the country.

Kaufmann Feiner's franchise expertise extends to all aspects of

establishing or expanding a national franchise program and includes:

structuring and financing the franchise entity; drafting, and securing

the registration.


(704) 331-7582

(704) 353-3282 FAX

214 North Tryon Street, Suite 4700, Charlotte, NC 28202



CONTACT: Kevin P. Stichter, Partner



(203) 782-9076

(203) 782-9081 FAX

205 Church Street, 3rd Floor, New Haven, CT 06510



CONTACT: Scott Kern, Member

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Franchise attorneys representing franchisors in

regulatory, contract and litigation matters and representing franchisees

in acquisition and divestiture transactions.


(404) 815-6366

(404) 541-3122 FAX

1100 Peachtree Street, Suite 2800, Atlanta, GA 30309-4501

Email: rbarkoff@kilpatricksto

Internet: http://www.kilpatrickst

CONTACT: Rupert M. Barkoff, Partner



(952) 885-5999

(952) 885-5969 FAX

8000 Norman Center Drive, Suite 1000, Minneapolis, MN 55437



CONTACT: Dennis L. Monroe, Chair; Tom Macintosh, Shareholder

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Krass Monroe, P.A. has a national practice and

strong reputation for its work in the multi-unit franchise industry. We

have the expertise and experience to deliver unparalleled services in

the areas of mergers and acquisitions, financing, (including senior

debt, mezzanine financing, equity investment and other specialty finance

transactions), franchising and distribution, financial workou t and

restructuring, commercial real estate, estate and business succession

planning, wealth preservation and taxation. Krass Monroe's recently

expanded legal services to franchisors includes: planning and

structuring of franchise and distribution systems, preparation of

Uniform Franchise Offering Circulars, preparation of franchise

agreements, preparation of master franchise and development agreements

as well as trademark evaluation, registration and enforcement. We offer

creative ideas, identify unique financing sources, and help develop the

financial and franchise tools necessary for the growth, viability,

success and development of our clients.


(303) 297-2400

(303) 292-7799 FAX

1801 California Street, Suite 3100, Denver, CO 80202


Internet: http://w

CONTACT: Jennifer Wisniewski, Esq.

Omaha Office

The Omaha Building, 1650 Farnam Street, Omaha, NE 68102

Los Angeles Office

515 South Figueroa Street, Suite 1240, Los Angeles, CA 90071

Scottsdale Office

8601 North Scottsdale Road, Suite 300, Scottsdale, Arizona 85253

Atlanta Office

225 Peachtree Stret, NE, Suite 2100, Atlanta, GA 30303

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Kutak Rock's Franchising and Distribution

Practice represents local and national clients in a broad range of

franchise issues including registration, disclosure, relationship and

business opportunity laws, licensing, distribution, intellectual

property, litigation, dispute resolution and corporate finance. Our team

includes lawyers from multiple disciplines allowing us to effectively

represent clients in various industries and at all phases of growth. We

believe that the best results are had by putting together legal teams

that understand a client's industry and have the relevant legal

expertise to obtain the desired goal. With over 375 lawyers in 15

offices nationwide, we have the breadth and depth of expertise to create

the right legal team for you.


(416) 360-8600

(604) 689-9111

(416) 304-3810 FAX

181 Bay Street, Suite 2500, P.O. Box 747, Toronto, ON M5J 2T7




CONTACT: Robert Glass (Toronto), Richard Meagher (Toronto); James

Bond (Vancouver)

Vancouver Office

1500 Royal Centre, 1055 West Georgia Street, Vancouver, BC V6E 4N6


TYPE OF BUSINE SS: Full service Canadian law firm with experience in

all areas of franchising, including trade-marks, trade secrets,

advertising, competition law, system acquisition, litigation and

disclosure. Offices in Toronto, Ottawa and Vancouver. Established in



(514) 925-6300

(514) 925-9001 FAX

1250 Rene-Levesque Blvd. West, Suite 1400, Montreal, PQ H3B 5E9




CONTACT: Alex S. Konigsberg, Queen's Counsel

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Lapointe Rosenstein is a full service business

law firm specializing in domestic and international franchising and

distribution with an international network of lawyers, accountants and

bankers. Established in 1966.


(952) 835-3 800

(952) 896-3333 FAX

1500 Wells Fargo Plaza, 7900 Xerxes Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN




CONTACT: Charles S. Modell, Chair, Franchise Practice Group; Andrew

F. Perrin, Shareholder, Franchise Practice Group

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service law firm, representing franchisors

in structuring, drafting and registering franchise documents,

negotiations with franchisees, acquisitions, international expansion,

arbitration, mediation and litigation.


(703) 647-5945

(703) 684-8075 FAX

225 Reinekers Lane, Suite 700, Alexandria, VA 22314



CONTACT: R. Scott Caulkins, Sharehold er

Richmond Office

951 East Byrd Street, #800, Richmond, VA 23219

Norfolk Office

999 Waterside Drive, #2525, Norfolk, VA 23510

Roanoke Office

10 South Jefferson Street, #1800, Roanoke, VA 24011

TYPE OF BUSINESS: We have a full service practice for franchisors,

including preparing franchise agreements, UFOC's, counseling on

trademark and IP issues, and franchise litigation. We represent

franchises in negotiating contracts, business formation, sale of

franchise outlets and litigation.


86 1085321919 Ext. 286

86 1085321999 FAX

10-2 Liangmaqiao Diplomatic Compound, No. 22 Dongfang E. Rd.

Chaoyang Dis, Beijing 100600 China



CONTACT: Edwa rd Lehman, Managing Director



(702) 243-0900

(702) 243-0342 FAX

3230 S. Buffalo Drive, Suite 104, Las Vegas, NV 89117



CONTACT: Jermaine S. Grubbs, Attorney



(214) 740-8000

(214) 740-8800 FAX

2200 Ross Avenue, Suite 2200, Dallas, TX 75201



CONTACT: Kevin L. Twining, Partner

Washington D.C. Office

901 Fifteenth Street, N.W., Suite 900, Washington, DC 20005

Houston Office

3400 Chase Tower, 600 Travis, Suite 3400,

Houston, TX 77002-3095

Austin Office

100 Congress, Suite 300, Austin, TX78701-4042

New Orleans Office

601 Poydras, Suite 2400, New Orleans, LA 70130-6036

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Established in 1891, this 400+ attorney firm has

broad-based and substantial experience representing franchisors,

franchisees, co-branding alliance partners and distributors in domestic

and international expansion. Practice groups include Franchise and

Distribution, Intellectual Property, International, Business Litigation

(including Franchise Litigation), Labor and Employment, Corporate and

Securities, Tax, Real Estate, Environmental, and Bankruptcy. The firm

has offices in Austin, Dallas and Houston, Texas, Washington, D.C., and

New Orleans, Louisiana. It also maintains close relationships with a

network of franchise lawyers around the world.


(213) 687-6705

(213) 485-1200 FAX

300 S. Grand Avenue, Suite 800, Los Angeles, CA 90071



CONTACT: Christopher S. Reeder, Esq., Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Founded in 1914, Lord, Bissell & Brook is a

full service law firm serving national and international clients from

offices in Atlanta, Chicago, London, Los Angeles, New York, Sacramento

and Washington, D.C. For additional information about Lord, Bissell

& Brook, please visits its Website at


(248) 827-1870

(248) 359-6170 FAX

28400 Northwestern Highway, Southfield, MI 48034-1839

CONTACT: Stuart M. Bordman, Attorney

TYPE OF BUSINE SS: Full service law firm with extensive experience

in structuring, drafting and registering franchise documents,

negotiations with franchisees and negotiations with franchisors on

behalf of franchisees.


(919) 787-8880

(919) 571-2504 FAX

3605 Glenwood Avenue, Suite 500, Raleigh, NC 27612



CONTACT: Ritchie W. Taylor, Shareholder; Sandra Martin Clark,


Wilmington Office

300 North Third Street, #320, Wilmington, NC 28401

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service law firm representing franchise and

distribution networks throughout the United States by providing to

franchisors and franchisees experienced litigation and transactional

legal representation.


(732) 747-7100

(732) 219-0625 FAX

63 Riverside Avenue, Red Bank, NJ 07701



CONTACT: Justin Klein, Esq., Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law firm specializing in representation of single

and multi-unit franchisees from transactional to complex class action

litigation. We also represent and assist in the formation of independent

franchisee associations.



61-3-8540-0202 FAX

315 Ferntree Galley Road, Mount Waverley, VIC 03149 Australia



CONTACT: John Sier, Partner; Philip Colman, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Mason Sier Turnbull is one of Austra lia's

leading franchise and distribution law firms servicing both domestic and

international clients for over 20 years. Our franchise team comprises

some 17 franchise lawyers working in all areas of franchising. John Sier

is recognized in the International Who's Who of Franchising Lawyers

2004 edition after having been nominated by his peers.


(312) 782-0600

(312) 701-7711 FAX

71 South Wacker Drive, Suite 3200, Chicago, IL 60606




(212) 609-6832

(212) 645-0596 FAX

245 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10167



CONTACT: Timothy Fisher, Attorney



(202) 756-8616

(202) 756-8087 FAX

600 13th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006



CONTACT: Debra A. Harrison, Partner

Chicago Office

227 West Monroe Street, Chicago, IL 60606

New York Office

340 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10017

Boston Office

28 State Street, Boston, MA 02109

Los Angeles Office

2049 Century Park East, Los Angeles, CA 90067

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service international law firm; assists

clients in all aspects of franchising, distribution and licensing

relationships, including regulatory compliance, contract negotiation,

and intellectual property protection and leveraging.


(410) 823-8244

(410) 821-8123 FAX

One West Pennsylvania Avenue, Suite 900, Towson, MD 21204-5076



CONTACT: Charles E. Rosolio, Esq., Principal



(313) 963-6420

(313) 496-8453 FAX

150 W. Jefferson, Suite 2500, Detroit, MI 48226



CONTACT: Irene Bruce Hathaway, Principal; Edwin J. Lukas, Senior


Ann Arbor Office

101 N. Main Street, 7th Floor, Ann Arbor, MI 48104

Kalamazoo Office

444 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49007 < br>

Lansing Office

One Michigan Avenue, #900, Lansing, MI 48933

Troy Office

840 W. Long Lake Road, #200, Troy, MI 48098

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Representation in all aspects of franchising,

licensing and distributing products, services and business concepts.

Specialized and experienced attorneys serve both your transactional and

litigation needs. With offices throughout Michigan, and in New York,

Florida, Canada and Europe, and professional networks in Asia and South

America, we provide rapid, cost-effective solutions to your concerns and



(514) 875-5210

(416) 595-2983

(514) 875-4308 FAX

CIBC Tower, 31st Floor, 1155 Rene-Levesque Boulevard West,

Montreal, PQ H3B 3S6 Canada


< br>CONTACT: Stephane Teasdale (Montreal), Partner & Chair,

Franchise Law Group; Richard Leblanc (Toronto), Attorney

Toronto Office

Scotia Plaza, 40 King Street West, Suite 5800, Toronto, ON M5H 3S1


Vancouver Office

1000-840 Howe Street, Vancouver, BC V6Z 2M1 Canada

Calgary Office

3000-700 Ninth Avenue SW, Calgary, AB T2P 3V4 Canada

Edmonton Office

2700 Commerce Place, 10155-102nd Street, Edmonton, AB T5J 4G Canada

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Established in 1957, this full service business

law firm is experienced in Canadian and international franchising and in

representing U.S. franchisors and master franchisees in Canada,

including patents trademarks, copyright, trade-secrets and computer law

matters. The firm has particular expertise in related distribution,

administrative and r egulatory law matters such as liquor licensing, Food

and Drug Act compliance, packaging and labelling, real estate licensing,

marketing, advertising and direct selling. The firm also has substantial

environmental law and labor, pensions and employment law practice

groups. In addition to the IFA, the firm is a member of the Canadian

Franchise Association.


(310) 556-3800

(310) 556-3817 FAX

1925 Century Park East, Suite 350, Los Angeles, CA 90067



CONTACT: Al Mohajerian, Attorney at Law

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Franchising, intellectual property, corporate,

business, small business, and trade secrets lawyers. Serving the global



(312) 324-1190
< br>

(312) 324-1001 FAX

77 West Wacker Drive, Sixth Floor, Chicago, IL 60601



CONTACT: Theodore M. Lewis, Partner; James R. Sims III, Partner



(972) 931-0022

(972) 931-0124 FAX

2425 N. Central Expressway, Suite 530, Richardson, TX 75080



CONTACT: Cheryl Mullin, Attorney

TYPE OF BUSINESS: A full service law firm dedicated to serving

businesses and their owners. Whether we're structuring a franchise

program or managing multi-jurisdiction litigation, we focus on the big

picture and offer solutions aligned with your business strategy.


(800) 237-2000

(404) 817-6000

(404) 817-6050 FAX

999 Peachtree Street, N.E., Suite 1400, Atlanta, GA 30309



CONTACT: Richard K. hines, V, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Established in 1897, Nelson Mullins Riley &

Scarborough, L.L.P. is a full service law firm with more than 210

lawyers with six offices in the Southeast. The firm's Franchise

Practice serves the franchise industry nationwide in all aspects of

franchisor representation including the following: termination

litigation; alternative dispute resolution; buy-outs; developing

franchise programs; franchise offering circulars in compliance with

state and federal law; registering the sale of franchises with state

authorities; developing franchises and initi ating business operations;

litigation; franchise agreement negotiations; and counseling. The firm

has provided legal service to a variety of franchise businesses

including the hospitality industry, restaurants and fast food

establishments, automotive manufacturers and distributors, optical

shops, athletic facilities, and amateur and professional sports leagues.


(617) 345-1000

(617) 345-1300 FAX

100 Summer Street, Boston, MA 02110-2131



CONTACT: Arthur L. Pressman, Partner; Andrew P. Loewinger, Partner

Philadelphia Office

(215) 246-3520

(215) 561-0410 FAX

1818 Market Street, 11th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103-3647


CONTACT: Craig R. Tractenberg

Rochester Office

(585) 236-1000

(585) 263-1600 FAX

Clinton Square, P.O. Box 31051, Rochester, NY 14603


CONTACT: Robert B. Calihan

New York Office

(212) 940-3000

(212) 940-3111 FAX

437 Madison Avenue, New York, NY10022


CONTACT: Frank Ryan

San Francisco Office

(415) 984-8200

(415) 984-8300 FAX

Two Embarcadero Center, San Francisco, CA94111


CONTACT: Glenn E. Westreich

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Nixon Peabody LLP is one of the 50 largest law

firms in the United States with more than 650 attorneys in 14 offices

working in 15 major practice areas. The firm's franchise team is

led by Arthur Pressman and Andrew Loewinger, each recognized as one of

the top franchise lawyers in the 2004 edition of who's Who in

International Franchising. Our attorneys have represented clients in all

aspects of franchise and distribution arrangements and provided counsel

on a wide range of transactions, both domestically and internationally.

We also represent clients in all phases of domestic and international

dispute resolution and litigation arising from thei r franchising and

distribution arrangements. The franchise team is able to draw on the

knowledge and experience of colleagues throughout the firm, and the team

is unique among major law firm franchise practices by combining its

sophisticated corporate and transactional practice with a nationally and

internationally known franchise litigation expertise. The integration of

our franchise transactional practice and franchise dispute resolution

practice enables us to most effectively counsel clients on risk

avoidance and risk management. Nixon Peabody's newsletter,

Franchise Law Alert, helps franchisors and franchisees keep up to date

on relevant legal developments affecting the franchise industry.


49 30-20942077


49-30-20942094 FAX

Charlottenstrasse 57, Berlin 10117 Germany



CONTACT: Dr. Karsten Metzlaff; Dr. Karl Rauser

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law Firm. Established in 1950.


(55) 53223000

(55) 53223001 FAX

Pedro Luis Ogazon Num. 17 Col. San Angel, Mexico City, D.F. 01000




CONTACT: Gustavo Alcocer, Esq., Partner



(414) 276-5000

(414) 276-6581 FAX

111 E. Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53202-4870



CONTACT: Chad J. Richter, Attorney



(416) 862-6415

(416) 862-6666 FAX

Box 50, 1 First Canadian Place, Toronto, ON M5X 1B8Canada



CONTACT: Frank Zaid, Senior Partner; Andraya Frith, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: If you or your franchise clients are thinking

about expanding north of the border, consider us your legal partner in

Canada. Osler is ranked as the most frequently recommended firm for

franchising law in the 2007 Canadian Legal Lexpert Directory, consistent

with our rankings in all other published legal directories. We have

extensive cross-border experience, provide national full-service

business advice and litigation counsel and have assisted nearly 350

franchise systems over the past 30 years.


(856) 985-4089

(856) 552-1428 FAX

Three Greentree Centre, 7001 Lincoln Drive West, Marlton, NJ 08053



CONTACT: David R. Dahan, Esq., Shareholder; John M. Devlin, Esq.,


Atlantic City Office

8025 Black Horse Pike, Suite 325, West Atlantic City, NJ 08232

Lawrenceville Office

1009 Lenox Drive, Building Four East, Suite 102A, Lawrenceville, NJ


TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law firm with extensive experience in commercial

transactions and litigation, including franchises, distribution,

licensing, intellectual property and business formation and counseling.


(800) 588-7459

(404) 815-2400

(404) 815-2400 FAX

600 Peachtree Street, NE, Suite 2400, Atlanta, GA 30308-2222



CONTACT: Richard M. Asbill, Partner; W. Andrew Scott, Partner

Los Angeles Office

515 S. Flower Street, 25th Floor, Los Angeles, CA 90071

New York Office

75 East 55th Street, 1st Floor, New York, NY 10022

Paris Office

30, avenue de Messine, Paris, 75008 France

Tokyo Office

Ark Mori Building, 34th Floor, Tokyo, 107-6034 Japan

TYPE OF BUSINESS: 950+ attorneys, full-service international firm

with 17 offices, including Brussels, Paris, London, Milan, Hong Kong,

Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. Substantial practice in

domestic/international franchising and distribution; complex litigation

and alternative di spute resolution; trademark and intellectual property;

antitrust and trade regulation; immigration; international trade; real

estate; employment; securities; venture capital and finance. Business

established in 1951.


(734) 665-4441

(734) 665-8788 FAX

24 Frank Lloyd Wright Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48105



CONTACT: Paul Fransway, Principal

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Legal Services for Franchisors.


(303) 291-2300

(303) 291-2400 FAX

1899 Wynkoop, Suite 700, Denver, CO 80202-1083



CONTACT: Kim I. McCullough, Partner

TYPE OF BUSIN ESS: Perkins Coie LLP serves great companies with more

than 600 lawyers in 14 offices across the United States and in China.

Established in 1912, the firm represents clients that range in size from

FORTUNE 100 companies to start-ups, and has historically represented

market leaders in traditional and cutting-edge technology industries.

From developing to established franchisors, the firm's Franchise

& Distribution Group represents clients in the areas of franchising,

licensing and distribution law. Our in-depth, personal approach

encompasses a thorough understanding of our clients' businesses so

that we can offer the best full service solutions to grow and protect

their domestic and international businesses.


(813) 472-7550

(813) 472-7570 FAX

100 South Ashley Drive, Suite 1900, Tampa, FL 33602-5311



CONTACT: Scott P. Weber, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Phelps Dunbar is a full-service regional law firm

of over 260 attorneys, with offices in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA;

Jackson, Tupelo and Gulfport, MS; Houston, TX; Tampa, FL; and London,

England. Our franchise attorneys represent start-up and established

franchisors and franchisees, both domestic and international, on a wide

range of franchise law matters. We assist franchisors with matters such

as regulatory compliance, relationship law related issues, general

franchise law education, and the growth and expansion of their

businesses domestically and internationally. We assist franchisees with

such issues as the negotiation of single and multiunit purchases and

franchise relationship issues. In addition to franchise-specific

assis tance, our attorneys provide other services relating to owning and

operating a business. Such counseling includes assistance with general

corporate matters, leasing, construction, real estate, intellectual

property, tax planning, probate, labor and employment, financing, health

care, technology and litigation.


(716) 847-5410

(716) 847-8400

(716) 852-6100 FAX

3400 HSBC Center, Buffalo, NY 14203



CONTACT: Tom Bailey, Franchise Practice Coordinator; Edward S.

Bloomberg, Partner--Litigation

New York Office

437 Madison Avenue, 34th Floor, New York, NY 10022

Rochester Office

1400 First Federal Plaza, Rochester, NY 14614

Jamestown Office

8 East Third Street, #307, Jamestown, NY 14702

Garden City Office

1100 Franklin Avenue, 4th Flr., Garden City, NY 11530

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Phillips Lytle LLP has 170+ lawyers in offices

throughout New York State helping franchisors with dispute resolution,

trademark and patents, employment, merger and acquisitions and all

aspects of disclosure requirements.


(914) 681-0100

(914) 206-6003 FAX

10 Bank Street, Suite 540, White Plains, NY 10606

Email: pitegoff@


CONTACT: Tom Pitegoff, Attorney; Richard Corrao, Paralegal

TYPE OF BUSINESS: We help grow businesses through franchising. We

draft contracts that achieve business goals, we assess risks in a

real-world context, and we create strategies that work .


(703) 774-1200

(703) 774-1201 FAX

11250 Roger Bacon Drive, Suite 5, Reston, VA 20190



CONTACT: John M. Tifford, Partner; Lee J. Plave, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law firm primarily representing franchisors and

parties before the FTC.


(215) 495-6500

(215) 495-6600 FAX

2929 Arch Street, Cira Centre, 13th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19104



CONTACT: Daniel L. Fiore, Attorney



(303) 297-2600

(303) 297-2750 FAX

1099 18 th Street, Suite 2600, Denver, CO 80202-1908



CONTACT: Douglas R. Ferguson, Shareholder; Harold R. Bruno, III,


TYPE OF BUSINESS: RWO is a full-service law firm established in

Denver in 1976. The franchise practice group is experienced in all

aspects of franchise, distribution and licensing law including domestic

and international regulatory compliance, transactional, litigation and



(212) 644-6644

(212) 644-3344 FAX

110 East 59th Street, 23rd Floor, New York, NY 10022



CONTACT: Richard L. Rosen



(516) 745-0099

(516) 745-0293 FAX

1425 RexCorp Plaza, 14th Fl., West Tower, Uniondale, NY 11556



CONTACT: Harold L. Kestenbanm, Counsel



(800) 458-5973

(206) 583-0359 FAX

1201 Third Avenue, Suite 3400, Seattle, WA 98101-3034



CONTACT: Kevin J. Collette, Chair: Technology & Intellectual

Prop. Group

TYPE OF BUSINESS: We understand franchising. Full service business

law firm with a team approach for franchising-registration, disclosures,

advertising, internet, trademarks, licensing, corporate, real estate,

technology, litigation, arbitration and ADR techniques. Established in



(212) 689-0400

(212) 689-3315 FAX

404 Park Avenue South, 16th Floor, New York, NY 10016


CONTACT: Bruce S. Schaeffer, Attorney

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Attorney specializing in finance, accounting and

tax aspects of franchising. Established in 1975. Author, BNA Tax

Management Portfolio on Franchising. Member IFA Finance Accounting &

Tax Committee, 1987-1990. Member IFA Legal/Legislative Committee.


(312) 258-5500

(312) 258-5600 FAX

6600 Sears Tower, 233 S. Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606



CONTACT: Paula J. Morency, Partner



(281) 807-0288

(281) 477-9085 FAX

12300 Dundee Court, Suite 203, Cypress, TX 77429



CONTACT: Gail Schubot, Attorney

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Business law practice with emphasis in

franchising, licensing, and distribution law including transactional,

regulatory and litigation work.


(312) 346-1300

(312) 782-8416 FAX

180 North LaSalle Street, Suite 2700, Chicago, IL 60601



CONTACT: Carmen D. Caruso, Principal; Robert A. Smoller, Principal

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Schwartz Cooper has extensive experience in

challenging franchise litigation. We are a mid-size firm committed to

providing responsive, cost-effective legal representation of the highest

quality. We are large enough to provide the necessary specialization,

yet small enough that our relationships with our clients matter. The

firm has expertise and provides legal representation in connection with

structuring franchise and distribution systems, protection of

intellectual property, preparing the franchise offering circular

including franchise agreement, state registrations, renewals and ongoing

compliance, litigation and dispute resolution and general day-to-day

relational issues. In addition, we provide legal services in other areas

including real estate, securities and general corporate and business

law. Our clients are extremely diverse both in terms of size and



(404) 885-1500

(404) 892-7056 FAX

1545 Peachtree Street NE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30309-2401


CONTACT: Brian Gannon, Counsel

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law Firm. Established 1945.


(813) 258-1099

(813) 258-1040 FAX

215 West Verne Street, Suite A, Tampa, FL 33606


CONTACT: Dennis Leone, Partner



(213) 620-1780

(213) 620-1398 FAX

333 South Hope Street, 48th Floor, Los Angeles, CA 90071


I nternet:

CONTACT: Christopher S. Reeder, Partner; Gabriel Green, Associate



(860) 251-5000

(860) 251-5219 FAX

One Constitution Plaza, Hartford, CT 06103-1919


CONTACT: Allan P. Hillman, Partner; Paul D. Sanson, Attorney

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law Firm. Established 1919.


(800) 444-6659

(419) 321-1340

(419) 241-9000

(419) 241-6894 FAX

1000 Jackson, North Courthouse Square, Toledo, OH 43604-5573



CONTACT: Brian N. McMahon, Partner; Peter R. Silverman, Partner

Tampa Offic e

101 East Kennedy Boulevard, Suite 2800, Tampa, FL 33602-5151

Charlotte Office

128 South Tryon Street, Suite 1800, Charlotte, NC 28202-1675

Columbus Office

Huntington Center, 41 South High Street, Suite 2210, Columbus, OH


TYPE OF BUSINESS: Established in 1925. Shumaker, Loop &

Kendrick, LLP is a full service law firm with approximately 155

attorneys and 4 offices in Toledo, Ohio, Columbus, Ohio, Tampa, Florida,

and Charlotte, North Carolina. The firm's franchise practice group

provides comprehensive legal services to companies engaged in domestic

and international franchising and distribution matters, including the

establishment of franchise and distribution programs, litigation,

arbitration and mediation of disputes, regulatory compliance, franchise

negotiations, development of franchise locations, acqui sitions and

divestitures, finance, securities law; and counseling on all phases of

franchise operations.


(303) 634-2000

(303) 634-2020 FAX

1200 Seventeenth Street, Suite 1900, Denver, CO 80202-5854


CONTACT: Kevin Hein; Andrew Pidcock

Phoenix Office

One Arizona Center, Phoenix, AZ 85004

Salt Lake City Office

15 West South Temple, Suite 1200, Salt Lake City, UT 84101-1531

Las Vegas Office

3800 Howard Hughes Pkwy., Suite 1000, Las Vegas, NV 89109

Irvine Office

1920 Main Street, Suite 1200, Irvine, CA 92614-7230

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Snell & Wilmer's Franchising and

Licensing attorneys provide legal services to a wide variety of

concepts. They have experien ce assisting clients through every stage of

the franchising process, at either the local, regional or international



(312) 876-8000

(312) 876-7934 FAX

8000 Sears Tower, Chicago, IL 60606


CONTACT: Alan H. Silberman; John Baer; Robert Joseph (Chicago);

Curtis Woods (Kansas City); Rochelle Spandorf (L.A.);

James Goniea (San Francisco); S. Rovak (St. Louis)

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Sonnenschein Nath & Rosenthal LLP, a

full-service law firm with 600 lawyers in nine U.S. offices, is involved

in all aspects of distribution, licensing and franchising, counseling

and litigation on a variety of antitrust, franchise and dealer law,

marketing, franchisee relations and supplier arrangement questions. Mr.

Joseph currently serves a s Chair of the American Bar Association Antitrust Section, a post Mr. Silberman also has held. Ms. Spandorf is a

former Chair of the ABA Forum on Franchising (1995-97) and Mr. Baer

formerly served as Editor-in-Chief of the ABA Forum's The Franchise

Lawyer and was part of the Forum's leadership.


(416) 977-0007

(416) 977-0717 FAX

180 Dundas Street West, Suite 1250, Toronto, ON M5G 1Z8 Canada



CONTACT: John Sotos, Partner;

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Sotos LLP specializes in international and

domestic franchise and distribution law including disclosure and all

aspects of litigation, franchise mediation, arbitration, intellectual

property issues and international expansion.


(800) 535-3425

(609) 895-7348

(609) 895-7395 FAX

993 Lenox Drive, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648



CONTACT: Rachel Stark, Chair of Franchise Group; Adam Siegelheim

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Stark & Stark helps franchise clients in

formation, expansion, and divestiture, as well as to protect and license

trademarks, service marks, and trade secrets.


(314) 863-0800

168 N. Meramec Avenue, Suite 400, St. Louis, MO 63105



CONTACT: Nicole S. Zellweger, Associate

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Structuring franchise, distribution, and

dealership programs; preparing legal documentation for franchise,

business opportunity, distr ibution and dealer programs, and counselling

franchisors and franchisees.


(214) 651-4300

(214) 651-4330 FAX

901 Main Street, Suite 4300, Dallas, TX 75202-3724



CONTACT: Earsa Jackson, Franchise Leader; Buddy Ferguson, Partner

Austin Office

600 Congress Avenue, #1600, Austin, TX 78701

Frisco Office

2801 Network Boulevard, #600, Frisco, TX 75034

Houston Office

1401 McKinney Street, #2200, Houston, TX 77010

San Antonio Office

300 Convent Street, #900, San Antonio, TX 78205

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Strasburger's Franchise & Distribution

Law Group provides comprehensive representation of businesses using

fra nchising, licensing, dealership or direct selling arrangements for

the distribution of goods and services in the U.S., Mexico, and Latin

America, including counseling, litigation, arbitration, and

transactional work involving franchise, dealership, antitrust, supply

chain, intellectual property, employment, and corporate issues.


(973) 491-9500

(973) 491-9692 FAX

Two Penn Plaza East, Newark, NJ 07105-2293



CONTACT: Martin G. Gilbert, Esq., Partner; Judith Carberry,


New York Office

2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121

TYPE OF BUSINESS: A full service firm providing comprehensive

franchising legal services in the New Jersey/New York area, established

in 1898.


(937) 443-6600

(937) 443-6635 FAX

2000 Courthouse Plaza NE, 10 West Second Street, Dayton, OH




CONTACT: Barry M. Block, Partner; Thomas J. Collin, Partner &

Practice Group Leader

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Established in 1911, Thompson Hine LLP is a full

service business law firm with more than 360 lawyers in Cleveland,

Cincinnati, Columbus, and Dayton, Ohio, Washington, D.C., New York,

Atlanta and Brussels, Belgium. The firm has an extensive practice

counseling franchisors and franchisees and litigating franchise and

distribution matters.


(800) 255-8752

(404) 885-3000

(404) 885-3900 FAX

600 Peachtree Stree t, N.E., Suite 5200, Atlanta, GA 30308-2216



CONTACT: Mark S. VanderBroek, Partner; Kenneth Ozment, Attorney

Richmond Office

1111 E. Main Street,, Richmond, VA 23218

Washington, D.C. Office

401 9th Street, N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004

New York Office

The Chrysler Building, 405 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10174

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Full service law firm of over 600 lawyers,

experienced in franchise law including developing franchise programs,

regulatory compliance, and franchise litigation and dispute resolution.



92427323501 FAX

West End Building 61 The Mall, Lahore 54000 Pakistan



CONTACT: M. Farrukh Irfan Khan, Attorney at Law

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Intellectual Property Registration, Licensing and

Enforcement Services.


(214) 751-2000

(214) 751-2002 FAX

4242 Renaissance Tower, 1201 Elm Street, Dallas,

TX 75270


CONTACT: John Vernon, Partner; Mary Goodrich, Partner



(614) 464-6400

(614) 464-6430

(614) 464-6350 FAX

52 East Gay Street, P.O. Box 1008, Columbus, OH 43216-1008



CONTACT: Herbert A. Hedden, E sq., Partner; Stephen R. Bucheuroth,

Esq., Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: A full service law firm with offices in Columbus,

Cleveland, Cincinnati and Akron, Ohio, Washington, D.C. and Alexandria,

Virginia. The firm has an extensive franchise law practice representing

franchisors, franchisees and franchisee associations.


(203) 498-4400

(203) 782-2889 FAX

One Century Tower, New Haven, CT 06508-1832


CONTACT: Edward Wood Dunham, Chair, Franchise & Distribution

Practice Group

TYPE OF BUSINESS: The law firm of Wiggin & Dana represents

national, regional and start-up franchisors and distributors in numerous

industries. The firm regularly assists these clients in regulatory,

transactional and litigation matters. The firm's Franchise and

Distribution Prac tice Group is national litigation counsel for Subway

and MAACO, and also represents other well-known franchise systems.


(202) 719-7000

(202) 719-7049 FAX

1776 K Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20006



CONTACT: Peter Klarfeld/Bob Smith, Partners; Jim Rubinger, Partner

TYPE OF BUSINESS: The Franchise Group at this full-service firm is

second to none in terms of its breadth, depth and experience. The Group

is involved in all aspects of domestic and international franchising, as

well as licensing and distribution. Wiley, Rein & Fielding LLP also

has a broad national regulatory and commercial practice covering all

pertinent areas.


(804) 783-6418

(804) 783-6507 FAX
< br>

P.O. Box 1320, Richmond, VA 23218-1320



CONTACT: Sandy T. Tucker, Shareholder

Washington, DC Office

(202) 293-5939 FAX

1666 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006

CONTACT: Warren Lewis

McLean Office

8270 Greensboro Drive, #700, McLean, VA 22102

Detroit Office

11th Flr, Buhl Bldg, 535 Griswold Avenue, Detroit, MI 48226

London Office

2 Old Garden House, The Lanterns, Bridge Lane,

London SW11 3AD United Kingdom

TYPE OF BUSINESS: Law firm offering expertise to franchisors and

franchisees in domestic and international franchising and distribution,

compliance with disclosure and relationship laws, franchise litigation

and transactional matters . In business since 1909.


44 121 233 1000

44 121 214 1099 FAX

55 Colmore Row, Birmingham B3 2AS United Kingdom



CONTACT: Michael Luckman, Partner; Vicky Wilkes



(305) 374-5418

(305) 374-5428 FAX

100 SE 2nd Street, Suite 2700, Miami, FL 33131-2100



CONTACT: Robert F. Salkowski, Partner; Robert Zarco, President